Cases


index

case

case; standardized name
case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1840

Identifier: case   Type: complex/closed   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: In a given sentence, the way in which the form of a word changes in order to express a relationship with one or several words of the sentence, whereby the morphological modification may apply to nouns, pronouns, and noun phrase constituents, such as adjectives or numerals.
Source: MAF
Note: English marks case only on pronouns: nominative (e.g. I), objective (e.g. me) and genitive (e.g. my) and on nouns: (e.g. boy's and boys'). Latin marks six cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative and ablative.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1840 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


abessive case

abessive case; standardized name
abessive case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1223

Identifier: abessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks.
Source: Pei and Gaynor 1954 & Gove 1966

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Language sections: English, French


ablative case

ablative case; standardized name
ablative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1224

Identifier: ablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case typically used to indicate locative or instrumental function.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: The case is usually translated into English with a preposition.

Example: By the window, in the doghouse
Source:

Note: Ablative is one of the six locative cases which as their basic meaning correspond to locational prepositions in English.

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Language sections: English, French


absolutive case

absolutive case; standardized name
absolutive case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1225

Identifier: absolutiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used for nouns in ergative-absolute languages that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages such as English.
Source: dfki
Note: MAF

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Language sections: English, French


accusative case

accusative case; standardized name
accusative case; Source: MAF; data element name
accusative; Source: SEW, short form; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1226

Identifier: accusativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to indicate a direct object.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: MAF

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Language sections: English, French


additive case

additive case; standardized name
additive case; Source: Morphosyntax group; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1229

Identifier: additiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express "to" [or towards] in Basque studies.
Source: SIL

Note: Suggested new definition: In Basque studies, a case that expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks. Source: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAllativeCase.htm Note: The term allative case has been used in studies of Finnish and Eskimo. Its synonym additive case has been used especially in studies of Basque. Here the addition of the reference to "motion" clarifies the use of the additive case. Check record for allative case -- it may have similar problems. Otherwise this could be ambiguous because "to" can also express the indirect object in English.

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Language sections: English, French


adessive case

adessive case; standardized name
adessive case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1228

Identifier: adessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the meaning of presence 'at' or 'near' a place.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: MAF

Note: Adessive is one of the six locative cases whose basic meaning is expressed by locational prepositions in English.

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Language sections: English, French


allative case

allative case; standardized name
allative case; Source: Member of MAF DCS; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1236

Identifier: allativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the meaning of motion 'to' or 'towards' the referent it marks.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: For instance in Finnish.

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Language sections: English, French


benefactive case

benefactive case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1247

Identifier: benefactiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.
Source: SIL

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Language sections: English, French


causative case

causative case; standardized name
causative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1253

Identifier: causativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express that the referent of the noun it marks is the cause of the situation expressed by the clause.
Source: SIL

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Language sections: English, French


comitative case

comitative case; standardized name
comitative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1255

Identifier: comitativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express a meaning similar to 'along with' or 'accompagnied by'.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: MAF

Example: A bartommal mentem. The friend-my-with went-I 'I went with my friend.' In Hungarian the suffix used is val/vel
Source:

Note: Found in Finnish, Hungarian and Estonian

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Language sections: English, French


dative case

dative case; standardized name
dative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1265

Identifier: dativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case typically used to express an indirect object relationship or a range of meaning similar to that covered by 'to' or 'for' in English, whereby there is a great deal of variation between languages in the way this case is used.
Source: Crystal 2003

Example: They fixed him a good lunch. They fixed their guests a good lunch. [Indirect objects 'him' and 'their guests' would be expressed in the dative case in case-dependent languages.
Source: SEW

Explanation: The original example is terrible: They ate themselves a good lunch. This is bad English and not even a true dative (it is a reflexive in English, only marginally comparable to the indirect object.)
Source: www.latl.unige.ch

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Language sections: English, French


delative case

delative case; standardized name
delative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1268

Identifier: delativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks.
Source: SIL

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Language sections: English, French


elative case

elative case; standardized name
elative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1276

Identifier: elativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the meaning of motion 'away from' from the referent of the noun it marks.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: For instance, for Finnish.

Note: Elative is one of the six locative cases whose basic meaning corresponds to locational prepositions in English

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Language sections: English, French


equative case

equative case; standardized name
equative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1279

Identifier: equativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express likeness or identity to the referent of the noun it marks, whereby it has a meaning such as: 'as', 'like', or 'in the capacity of'.
Source: SIL

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Language sections: English, French


ergative case

ergative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1280

Identifier: ergativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used for the subject of a transitive verb as opposed to absolutive case.
Source: www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergative_case
Note: For instance for Basque and Eskimo.

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Language sections: English, French


essive case

essive case; standardized name
essive case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1281

Identifier: essiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express a state of being.
Source: Crystal 2003

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Language sections: English, French


genitive case

genitive case; standardized name
possessive case; admitted name
genitive case; Source: MAF; data element name
possessive case; Source: SEW (used in English); data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1293

Identifier: genitiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express a possessive relationship (e.g. the boy's book) or some other similarly close connection (e.g. a summer's day).
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: There is a great deal of variation between languages in the way this case is used.

Example: The boy's book, but the back of the house. In English, inanimate objects are less frequently used with the possessive form.
Source: SEW

Note: Hardly any English nouns decline, but the genitive case is indicated by the endings 's (belonging to one) and s' (belonging to more than one) in such phrases as the dog's bone, the cats' litter box.

Note: The original example is not good at all: The brick of the wall. English would say: the brick in the wall; the brick used in the wall.

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Language sections: English, French


illative case

illative case; standardized name
illative case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1303

Identifier: illativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the meaning of 'motion into' or 'direction towards' the referent of the noun it marks.
Source: Crystal 2003

Note: Illative is one of the six locative cases whose basic meaning corresponds to locational prepositions in English.

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Language sections: English, French


inessive case

inessive case; standardized name
inessive case; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1311

Identifier: inessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the meaning of location or position within a place.
Source: Crystal 2003
Note: For instance for Finnish.

Note: Inessive is one of the six locative cases whose basic meaning corresponds to locational prepositions in English

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Language sections: English, French


instrumental case

instrumental case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1316

Identifier: instrumentalCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case indicating that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause.
Source: SIL
Note: MAF

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Language sections: English, French


lative case

lative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1323

Identifier: lativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case which expresses motion to a location.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lative_case
Note: For instance, in some Uralic languages like Erzya or Moksha. In finnish, lative is not productive anymore.

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Language sections: English, French


locative case

locative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1326

Identifier: locativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case that indicates a final location of action or a time of the action.
Source: www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locative_case
Note: MAF

Example: On chital v komnate. (This is Cyrilic)He read-past in room-loc. 'He was reading in the room.'
Source:

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Language sections: English, French


nominative case

nominative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1331

Identifier: nominativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to indicate the subject of a verb.
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html
Note: Nouns used in isolation have this case.

Example: I did it
Source: www.atilf.inalf.fr Tlfi, MORPHEME, A,1

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Language sections: English, French


objective case

objective case; standardized name
objective case; Source: http://englishplus.com/grammar/00000352.htm; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2798

Identifier: objectiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: http://englishplus.com/grammar/00000352.htm   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to express the direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, object complement and subject of an infinitive.
Source: http://englishplus.com/grammar/00000352.htm
Note: American English grammar teaches 'objective case', while British English grammar may continue to use dative and accusative as borrowed from Latin.

Example: I see him. I brought him a new book. I bought the book for him.
Source: Gil

Explanation: Compared with the strategy of naming these different meanings with difference case names, the argument is that this is all the same case, which is called objective case. This is indeed what every American is taught in school: they learn nominative case (I is of course nominative case), and they learn objective case.
Source: Gil

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oblique case

oblique case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1336

Identifier: obliqueCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case that is used when a noun is the object of a verb or a proposition, except for nominative and vocative case.
Source: www.hyperdictionary.com/dictionary/oblique+case +

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1336 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


partitive case

partitive case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2003

Identifier: partitiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case that expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part.
Source: DFKI

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Language sections: English, French


prolative case

prolative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1368

Identifier: prolativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case for a noun or a pronoun that expresses motion within a place or a period of time needed for an event.
Source: MAF
Note: Prolative is widely used in Estonian. There is a great deal of variation about this term in the various dictionaries.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1368 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


sociative case

sociative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1388

Identifier: sociativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case related to the person in whose company the action is carried out, or to any belongings of people which take part in the action.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociative_case
Note: This case is not productive any more; nowadays the instrumental-comitative case is usually used instead.

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Language sections: English, French


sublative case

sublative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1392

Identifier: sublativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case for a move of something to the surface of another object.
Source: www.hungarotips.com/hungarian/i/fonev1.html
Note: Be sure it will NOT be inside of the object, only ON the object. Sublative endings: -ra, -re Example sentences: Leteszem a táskát a székre. -- I put the bag on the chair. Felakasztjuk a képet a falra. -- We are hanging up the picture to the wall.

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Language sections: English, French


superessive case

superessive case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1396

Identifier: superessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case indicating location on top of something or on the surface of something.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superessive_case
Note: MAF

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Language sections: English, French


terminative case

terminative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1401

Identifier: terminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case that indicates to what or where something ends.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminative_case
Note: Fir instance in Estonian, jõeni: "to the river" / "as far as the river"

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Language sections: English, French


translative case

translative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1406

Identifier: translativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case indicating that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change.
Source: SIL
Note: In Finnish, this is the counterpart of the essive case.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1406 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


vocative case

vocative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1412

Identifier: vocativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Case used to indicate direct address.
Source: www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html
Note: MAF

Example: You're a good man, Charlie Brown
Source: ELM-FR:EAGLES Specifications for French

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1412 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


Nametype
1abessive casesimple
2ablative casesimple
3absolutive casesimple
4accusative casesimple
5additive casesimple
6adessive casesimple
7allative casesimple
8benefactive casesimple
9casecomplex/closed
10causative casesimple
11comitative casesimple
12dative casesimple
13delative casesimple
14elative casesimple
15equative casesimple
16ergative casesimple
17essive casesimple
18genitive casesimple
19illative casesimple
20inessive casesimple
21instrumental casesimple
22lative casesimple
23locative casesimple
24nominative casesimple
25objective casesimple
26oblique casesimple
27partitive casesimple
28prolative casesimple
29sociative casesimple
30sublative casesimple
31superessive casesimple
32terminative casesimple
33translative casesimple
34vocative casesimple