GOLD 2010


index

Abstract

Abstract; admitted name
Abstract; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3060

Identifier: Abstract   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Properties or qualities as distinguished from any particular embodiment of the properties/ qualities in a physical medium. Instances of Abstract can be said to exist in the same sense as mathematical objects such as sets and relations, but they cannot exist at a particular place and time without some physical encoding or embodiment. [SUMO 2010]
Source: [SUMO 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Thing. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3060 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


Character

Character; admitted name
Character; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Character; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3109

Identifier: Character   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A symbol used in writing, distinguished from others by its meaning, not its specific shape; similar to grapheme. It relates to the domain of orthographies and writing. Specific to the implementation of computers and other information systems. [Lyons, et al. 2001]
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3109 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Citation

Citation; admitted name
Citation; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Citation; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3111

Identifier: Citation   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: The action of citing or quoting any words or written passage from a publication that allows others to locate and identify the original source. Typical details include the title, author's name, the journal title (for articles), publication date and page numbers used in research. [Oxford English Dictionary 2010] Note: This concept was included in order to facilitate linking to the bibliographic entries referenced in GOLD.
Source: [Oxford English Dictionary 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). For relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3111 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DiscourseProperty

DiscourseProperty; admitted name
DiscourseProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DiscourseProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3166

Identifier: DiscourseProperty   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: No definition yet
Source: No source yet

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3166 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


SalienceProperty

SalienceProperty; admitted name
SalienceProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SalienceProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3461

Identifier: SalienceProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Salience relates to the way in which certain actants present in a situation are seized on by humans as foci of attention, with attention being paid to less salient, less individuated objects subsequently [Comrie 1989: 199]. It has been argued that salience explains the evolution of certain syntactic changes, as well as the predominance of word orders where the subject precedes the object, due to the the salience of the agent in the agent-action-patient situation [Comrie 1989; Timberlake 1977].
Source: [Comrie 1989: 199; Comrie 1989; Timberlake 1977]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DiscourseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3461 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DiscourseUnit

DiscourseUnit; admitted name
DiscourseUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DiscourseUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3167

Identifier: DiscourseUnit   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Discourse is the name given to stretches of language longer than one sentence, e.g., conversations, narratives, arguments, and speeches. A discourse unit is an identifiable structure within a discourse. The form of a discourse unit is partly determined by genre and partly by its social context. [Aristar-Dry 2010 (p.c.); based on Mills 1997]
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3167 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FormUnit

FormUnit; admitted name
FormUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3205

Identifier: FormUnit   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Denotes the sensorily perceptible aspect of the linguistic sign. [Bussmann 1996: 169]
Source: [Bussmann 1996: 169]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3205 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


Foot

Foot; admitted name
Foot; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Foot; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3203

Identifier: Foot   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Used to describe the unit of rhythm in languages displaying isochrony, i.e. where the stressed syllables fall at approximately regular intervals throughout an utterance. It is an extension of the term used in traditional studies of metrical verse structure, where the many regular patterns of stressed/unstressed syllables were given a detailed classification. In a more general phonological sense, the notion is applied to any utterance in a stress-timed language, not just verse. [Crystal 1985: 123-124]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 123-124]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3203 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Grapheme

Grapheme; admitted name
Grapheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Grapheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3228

Identifier: Grapheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A Grapheme is the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. A grapheme is an abstraction over a set of like glyphs, the actual images on the page. That is, a particular grapheme is realized by particular glyphs. More than one glyph can realize the same grapheme. For instance, the letter A and its cursive equivalent are each realizations of the grapheme Latin Capital Letter A.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Definition: Crystal defines a grapheme as the minimal contrastive unit in the writing system of a language; usually enclosed in angle brackets. The grapheme <a>, for example, is realized as several allographs A, a, a, etc., which may be seen as units in complementary distribution (e.g. upper case restricted to sentence-initial position, proper names, etc.), or in free variation (as in some styles of handwriting), just as in phonemic analysis. 'Grapheme Analysis' is the main business of graphemics (or graphology). [Crystal 2008: 220]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 220]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3228 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Mora

Mora; admitted name
Mora; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Mora; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3323

Identifier: Mora   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Mora refers to the several parts of the phoneme which may receive divergent tonal treatments [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 138]. A mora also can refer to a minimal unit of metrical time equivalent to a short syllable [Crystal 1985: 198].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 138; Crystal 1985: 198]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3323 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Phoneme

Phoneme; admitted name
Phoneme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phoneme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3389

Identifier: Phoneme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A phoneme is the underlying sound in a set of phonetically distinct sounds that native speakers of a language judge to be identical. Variants of the underlying sound are the product of systematic rules that modify the segment depending on the phonological context in which it occurs. [Kenstowicz 1994: 65-66]
Source: [Kenstowicz 1994: 65-66]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3389 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Segment

Segment; admitted name
Segment; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Segment; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3465

Identifier: Segment   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A discrete unit that can be identified in the stream of speech, either physically or auditorily. Features that extend over more than one segment, such as pitch or stress, are termed suprasegmentals. [Crystal 2003: 408–409; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 202]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 408–409; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 202]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3465 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Consonant

Consonant; admitted name
Consonant; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Consonant; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3134

Identifier: Consonant   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Segment

Definition: A type of sound segment defined by closure or constriction of the vocal tract, which produces an audible friction. The vocal tract constriction does not have to result in complete blocking; it can simply be a restriction of air flow. [Crystal 1985: 66]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 66]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Segment. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3134 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Vowel

Vowel; admitted name
Vowel; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Vowel; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3556

Identifier: Vowel   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Segment

Definition: One of the two general categories used for the classification of speech sounds, the other being consonant. Phonetically, they are sounds articulated without a complete closure in the mouth that would produce a stop or a degree of narrowing that would create audible friction; the air escapes evenly over the center of the tongue. For oral vowels, air escapes solely through the mouth. If some air is simultaneously released through the nose, the vowel is nasal. The quality of the vowel sound is affected by the shape of the oral resonance chamber, chiefly influenced by the position of the lips and the position of the tongue. [Crystal 1985: 330; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 253]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 330; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 253]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Segment. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3556 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Suprasegmental

Suprasegmental; admitted name
Suprasegmental; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suprasegmental; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3510

Identifier: Suprasegmental   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Phonetic features extending over more than one segment, such as stress, length, tone, and intonation, which are not properties of single consonants or vowels [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276].
Source: [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3510 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Syllable

Syllable; admitted name
Syllable; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Syllable; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3511

Identifier: Syllable   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Ladefoged contends that there is no satisfactory definition for this unit of speech, but that syllables seem to be necessary units in the mental organization and production of utterances. However, Crystal defines the syllable as an element of speech that acts as a unit of rhythm, consisting of a vowel, syllabic, or vowel/consonant combination. [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276]
Source: [Crystal 1987: 431; Ladefoged 2000: 276]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3511 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Toneme

Toneme; admitted name
Toneme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Toneme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3530

Identifier: Toneme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A stress or tonal element which in a tone language distinguishes two otherwise identical words or forms. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 238; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 218]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 238; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 218]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3530 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GrammarUnit

GrammarUnit; admitted name
GrammarUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GrammarUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3227

Identifier: GrammarUnit   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A GrammarUnit is the structural component of the linguistic sign and includes notions such as morpheme, syntactic word, and construction. Grammar units are classified according to their mereology (part-whole and complexity), morphosyntactic function, and whether they exist in a bound or free forms.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3227 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


Morpheme

Morpheme; admitted name
Morpheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3324

Identifier: Morpheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The smallest functioning unit in the composition of words, and the minimal distinctive unit of grammar. Morphemes are commonly classified into free forms (morphemes which can occur as separate words) adn bound forms (morphemes which cannot so occur - mainly affixes). A further distinction may be made between lexical and grammatical morphemes; the former are morphemes used for the construction of new words in a language; the latter are morphemes used to express grammatical relationships between a word and its context. [Crystal 2008: 300]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 300]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GrammarUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3324 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Affix

Affix; admitted name
Affix; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Affix; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3072

Identifier: Affix   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: An affix is a morpheme with an abstract meaning which can only be used when added to a root morpheme. These are classified in four different ways, depending on their position with reference to the root: suffix, prefix, circumfix and infix. [Haspelmath 2002: 265; Crystal 1980: 17]
Source: [Haspelmath 2002: 265; Crystal 1980: 17]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3072 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Circumfix

Circumfix; admitted name
Circumfix; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Circumfix; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3110

Identifier: Circumfix   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Affix

Definition: A discontinuous affix that occurs on both sides of the base. [Haspelmath 2002: 267]
Source: [Haspelmath 2002: 267]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Affix. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3110 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Infix

Infix; admitted name
Infix; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Infix; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3259

Identifier: Infix   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Affix

Definition: A term used in morphology referring to an affix which is added within a root or stem. [Crystal 1985: 157]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 157]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Affix. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3259 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Prefix

Prefix; admitted name
Prefix; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Prefix; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3417

Identifier: Prefix   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Affix

Definition: An affix which is added to the front of a root or stem. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 182]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Affix. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3417 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Suffix

Suffix; admitted name
Suffix; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Suffix; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3501

Identifier: Suffix   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Affix

Definition: An affix, consisting of a letter, syllable, or syllables, that follows a stem or word, modifying its meaning. Suffixes may be inflectional or derivational. [Crystal 1987: 431; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 225; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207]
Source: [Crystal 1987: 431; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 225; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Affix. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3501 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


BoundMorpheme

BoundMorpheme; admitted name
BoundMorpheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BoundMorpheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3211

Identifier: BoundMorpheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: A bound morpheme (or bound form) is one which cannot occur on its own as a separate word, e.g. various affixes de-, -tion, -ize. [Crystal 2003: 56]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 56]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3211 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DerivationalMorpheme

DerivationalMorpheme; admitted name
DerivationalMorpheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3157

Identifier: DerivationalMorpheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BoundMorpheme

Definition: DerivationalUnit is the class of functional units whose members function to derive a new lexical unit from an existing one, by systematically changing the meaning and possibly altering the part of speech feature of the root or stem it attaches to [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 62; Crystal 1985: 89; Bybee 1985: 81-82, 99].
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 62; Crystal 1985: 89; Bybee 1985: 81-82, 99]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BoundMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3157 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CategoryChanger

CategoryChanger; admitted name
CategoryChanger; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CategoryChanger; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3105

Identifier: CategoryChanger   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DerivationalMorpheme

Definition: CategoryChanger is a cover class for all derivational units that change the syntactic category of the root to which they are attached.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3105 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Nominalizer

Nominalizer; admitted name
Nominalizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Nominalizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3340

Identifier: Nominalizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CategoryChanger

Definition: A derivational unit that forms a noun from some other word class. [Crystal 1997: 260]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 260]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CategoryChanger. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3340 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Verbalizer

Verbalizer; admitted name
Verbalizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbalizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3547

Identifier: Verbalizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CategoryChanger

Definition: Verbalizer is the class of category changing units that change nouns into verbs.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CategoryChanger. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3547 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Versive

Versive; admitted name
Versive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Versive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3548

Identifier: Versive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CategoryChanger

Definition: Versive refers to an intransitive verb, usually derived from an adjective but occasionally from a noun or adverb, with the meaning 'to become X'. [Edmonson 1995: 378]
Source: [Edmonson 1995: 378]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CategoryChanger. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3548 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Intransitivizer

Intransitivizer; admitted name
Intransitivizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Intransitivizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3276

Identifier: Intransitivizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DerivationalMorpheme

Definition: A derivational unit that derives an intransitive verb from a transitive verb. [Hornby 2010 (p.c.)]
Source: [Hornby 2010 (p.c.)]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3276 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Processive

Processive; admitted name
Processive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Processive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3427

Identifier: Processive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DerivationalMorpheme

Definition: A derivational morpheme that derives transitives from other transitives or intransitive verb.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3427 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Repetitive

Repetitive; admitted name
Repetitive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Repetitive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3457

Identifier: Repetitive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DerivationalMorpheme

Definition: A derivational unit that derives transitives from other transitive or intransitive stems adding the meaning of repetition to the resulting form. [concept mentioned in Kibort 2008c: 9]
Source: [concept mentioned in Kibort 2008c: 9]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3457 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Transitivizer

Transitivizer; admitted name
Transitivizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Transitivizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3533

Identifier: Transitivizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DerivationalMorpheme

Definition: A derivational unit that derives transitive verbs from intransitive verb (stems).
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DerivationalMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3533 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InflectionalMorpheme

InflectionalMorpheme; admitted name
InflectionalMorpheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InflectionalMorpheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3260

Identifier: InflectionalMorpheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BoundMorpheme

Definition: InflectionalUnit is the class of functional units whose members designate such grammatical categories as tense, aspect, mood etc. The various forms of an InflectionalUnit plus the stem forms a grammatical paradigm and express a grammatical contrast that is obligatory for its stem's part of speech in some given grammatical context. An inflectional unit does not alter the part of speech feature of the root or stem it attaches to. It is typically located farther from its Root than a derivational unit and produces a predictable, nonidiosyncratic change of meaning [Crystal 1980: 184; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 112; Bybee 1985: 2, 99].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 184; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 112; Bybee 1985: 2, 99]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BoundMorpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3260 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Clitic

Clitic; admitted name
Clitic; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clitic; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3115

Identifier: Clitic   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: Clitic is the class of units which members exhibit syntactic characteristics of a lexical unit, but show evidence of being morphologically bound to another lexical unit, the host, by being unstressed or subject to word-level phonological rules [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 38; Anderson 1985: 158; Klavans 1982: xi-xiv, 74-76, 83, 93-95, 100-101; Zwicky 1977: 5].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 38; Anderson 1985: 158; Klavans 1982: xi-xiv, 74-76, 83, 93-95, 100-101; Zwicky 1977: 5]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3115 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Enclitic

Enclitic; admitted name
Enclitic; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Enclitic; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3177

Identifier: Enclitic   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clitic

Definition: An enclitic is a clitic that is phonologically joined at the end of a preceding lexical unit to form a single phonological unit [Crystal 1980: 64; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 65].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 64; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 65]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clitic. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3177 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Proclitic

Proclitic; admitted name
Proclitic; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Proclitic; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3428

Identifier: Proclitic   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clitic

Definition: A proclitic is a clitic that precedes the lexical unit to which it is phonologically joined [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 185; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 176].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 64; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 185; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 176]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clitic. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3428 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Compound

Compound; admitted name
Compound; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Compound; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3127

Identifier: Compound   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: A term used widely in descriptive linguistic studies to refer to a linguistic unit which is composed of elements that function independently in other circumstances. [Crystal 2003: 92]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 92]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3127 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FreeMorpheme

FreeMorpheme; admitted name
FreeMorpheme; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FreeMorpheme; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3207

Identifier: FreeMorpheme   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: A morpheme which can be used on its own as a word with a distinct meaning, as opposed to a bound morpheme. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 88]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 88]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3207 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Root

Root; admitted name
Root; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Root; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3460

Identifier: Root   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: The base form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity. Roots may be free or bound morphemes and can be classified as simple (i.e. compositionally unanalyzable in terms of morphemes) or complex/compound (i.e. certain combinations of simple root forms), though for the latter, the term 'stem' is often used. From a semantic point of view, the root generally carried the main component of meaning in a word. [Crystal 1997: 336]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 336]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3460 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Stem

Stem; admitted name
Stem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Stem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3485

Identifier: Stem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Morpheme

Definition: Stem is the class of morphological units that are analyzable into a root and possibly one or more derivational units. Stems can occur alone and are the basis for adding inflectional units. [Lyons 1977: 513, 521-526]
Source: [Lyons 1977: 513, 521-526]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Morpheme. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3485 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SyntacticUnit

SyntacticUnit; admitted name
SyntacticUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3515

Identifier: SyntacticUnit   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: SyntacticUnit (also called constituent) is a 'term in grammatical analysis for a linguistic unit which is a functional component of a larger construction. Based on a combination of intuitive and formal (e.g. distributional) criteria, a sentence can be analysed into a series of constituents, such as subject + predicate, or NP+VP, etc. [Crystal 2003: 99]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 99]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GrammarUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3515 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SyntacticConstruction

SyntacticConstruction; admitted name
SyntacticConstruction; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticConstruction; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3514

Identifier: SyntacticConstruction   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SyntacticUnit

Definition: SyntacticConstruction is the class of grammar units that have syntactic structure, i.e., consisting of more than one syntactic word or construction in a syntactic configuration [Crystal 1980: 85-86].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 85-86]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3514 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Clause

Clause; admitted name
Clause; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3114

Identifier: Clause   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SyntacticConstruction

Definition: A clause is a subdivision of a sentence containing a subject (argument) and predicate. It is possible to have a word that implies or refers to a predicate rather than one explicitly stated. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 40]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 40]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticConstruction. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3114 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MainClause

MainClause; admitted name
MainClause; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MainClause; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3309

Identifier: MainClause   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clause

Definition: MainClause is the class of clauses that can stand on their own as a full, independent sentence. If a sentence contains any embedded clauses, the main clause is understood as the matrix plus the embedded clauses. In the sentence 'John thinks that Mary is sick', 'John thinks that Mary is sick' is the main clause. [Crystal 2001: 231]
Source: [Crystal 2001: 231]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3309 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubordinateClause

SubordinateClause; admitted name
SubordinateClause; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3496

Identifier: SubordinateClause   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clause

Definition: A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3496 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AdjunctSubordinate

AdjunctSubordinate; admitted name
AdjunctSubordinate; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjunctSubordinate; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3068

Identifier: AdjunctSubordinate   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinateClause

Definition: A word or phrase which is used to extend the meaning of another word or phrase, but which is not one of the main structural elements of a sentence [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]. Adjunct clauses include subordinate clauses (i.e. those with overt subordinating conjunctions).
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3068 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ComplementSubordinate

ComplementSubordinate; admitted name
ComplementSubordinate; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComplementSubordinate; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3123

Identifier: ComplementSubordinate   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinateClause

Definition: A subordinate complement clause is an element which is dependent upon the main clause syntactically and as a whole completes the action of the verb. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Crystal 1980: 518]
Source: [Brown and Miller 1999: 424; Crystal 1980: 518]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3123 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Group

Group; admitted name
Group; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Group; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3231

Identifier: Group   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SyntacticConstruction

Definition: A term used in Hallidayan grammar to refer to a unit on the rank scale intermediate between clause and word. For example, in the sentence 'The car was parked in the street', 'the car' is a nominal group, 'was parked' is a verbal group, and 'in the street' is an adverbial group. The term Phrase is an equivalent in most other approaches. [Crystal 2008: 22]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 22]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticConstruction. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3231 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Phrase

Phrase; admitted name
Phrase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3393

Identifier: Phrase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SyntacticConstruction

Definition: Phrase is the class of syntactic constructions that consist of one or more syntactic words, but lack the subject-predicate organization of a clause. Phrases get their grammatical characteristics according to what word occupies the head position; thus, all phrases have heads. [Crystal 1980: 232-233; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 169; Pike and Pike 1982: 453]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 232-233; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 169; Pike and Pike 1982: 453]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticConstruction. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3393 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AdjectivePhrase

AdjectivePhrase; admitted name
AdjectivePhrase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdjectivePhrase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3067

Identifier: AdjectivePhrase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Phrase

Definition: A phrase with an adjective as a head. [Crystal 2003: 11] Adjective phrases may contain complements following the head, and modifiers in either pre-head or post-head position, but for the most part, complements in adjective phrase structure are optional elements: they qualify as complements by virtue of being licensed by the head rather than being obligatory. [Huddleston and Pullum 2002: 22-23, 57, 542]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 11; Huddleston and Pullum 2002: 22-23, 57, 542; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3067 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NounPhrase

NounPhrase; admitted name
NounPhrase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NounPhrase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3349

Identifier: NounPhrase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Phrase

Definition: Also called nominal groups, nouns phrases are the constructions into which nouns most commonly enter and of which they are the head word. The structure of a noun phrase consists minimally of the noun (or noun substitute, such as a pronoun); the constructions preceding and following the noun are often described under the headings of premodification and postmodification respectively. [Crystal 2008: 320]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 320]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3349 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VerbPhrase

VerbPhrase; admitted name
VerbPhrase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VerbPhrase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3543

Identifier: VerbPhrase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Phrase

Definition: A unit of sentence structure consisting of a verb and the other elements closely linked to it. Traditional grammarians divided a typical sentence into two parts: a subject and a predicate. In our modern elaboration of this, the syntactic category which acts as a subject is a noun phrase, while the category acting as the predicate is a verb phrase. A verb phrase always contains a verb, and it usually contains some other material closely linked to that verb. [Trask 1999: 335] According to the valence of the verb, the number and kind of the obligatory complements may vary; in addition, any number of free complements are possible. The border between obligatory and free complementsis often difficult to draw. [Bussmann 1996: 513]
Source: [Trask 1999: 335; Bussmann 1996: 513]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Phrase. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3543 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SyntacticWord

SyntacticWord; admitted name
SyntacticWord; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticWord; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3516

Identifier: SyntacticWord   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SyntacticUnit

Definition: SyntacticWord is the class of syntactic units occupying the lowest position in a syntactic construction. They are the largest units resistant to insertion of new constituents within their boundaries; or they are the smallest constituents that can be moved within a sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. [SIL International 2004]
Source: [SIL International 2004]

Definition: It can be moved about in the sentence, or at least its position relative to other constituents can be altered by inserting new material. It cannot be interrupted or its parts reordered. [Cruse 2000: 87-88]
Source: [Cruse 2000: 87-88]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3516 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HumanLanguageVariety

HumanLanguageVariety; admitted name
HumanLanguageVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3241

Identifier: HumanLanguageVariety   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used in sociolinguistics and stylistics to refer to any system of linguistic expression whose use is governed by situational variables. In some cases, the situational distinctiveness of the language may be easily stated, as in many regional and occupational varieties; in other cases, as in studies of social class, the varieties are more difficult to define, involving the intersection of several variables. [Crystal 1997: 408]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 408]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3241 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


AttestedVariety

AttestedVariety; admitted name
AttestedVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AttestedVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3092

Identifier: AttestedVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A linguistic form for which there is evidence of present or past use. Attestation refers to something that is found in actual recorded usage, compared with the hypothetical predictions of grammar or the intuitive (but otherwise unsupported) observations of the linguist.[Crystal 2003: 41]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 41]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3092 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DescribedVariety

DescribedVariety; admitted name
DescribedVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DescribedVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3158

Identifier: DescribedVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: DescribedVariety is the class of distinct human languages or language varieties as recognized by a linguist or a particular linguistic community, but not necessarily recognized by the ISO 639-3 standard. This category allows a language to be described even though it is not (yet) included in ISO 639-3.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3158 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ExtinctVariety

ExtinctVariety; admitted name
ExtinctVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ExtinctVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3188

Identifier: ExtinctVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A language no longer used as a medium of oral communication in a speech community, e.g. Latin, Gothic, as opposed to living languages such as English, Japanese. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 58]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 58]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3188 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LivingVariety

LivingVariety; admitted name
LivingVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LivingVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3305

Identifier: LivingVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A language which is the current native language of a speech community. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 133]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 133]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3305 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NearlyExtinctVariety

NearlyExtinctVariety; admitted name
NearlyExtinctVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearlyExtinctVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3331

Identifier: NearlyExtinctVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of languages that have relatively few native speakers. A nearly extinct variety is expected to become extrinct in a short time period, e.g., Jebero or Wichita.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3331 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SecondLanguageOnlyVariety

SecondLanguageOnlyVariety; admitted name
SecondLanguageOnlyVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SecondLanguageOnlyVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3463

Identifier: SecondLanguageOnlyVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: SecondLanguageOnlyVariant is a language variant that has no mother tongue speakers. It is only spoken as a a second language. One example would be the case of Callawalla (caw), which is only learned in adolescence. [Grimes 1992: 16]
Source: [Grimes 1992: 16]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3463 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SignedLanguage

SignedLanguage; admitted name
SignedLanguage; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SignedLanguage; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3472

Identifier: SignedLanguage   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: SignLanguage or SignSystem is referring to the system of manual communication used by certain groups as an alternative to oral communication. [Crystal 1997: 350]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 350]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3472 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SpokenLanguage

SpokenLanguage; admitted name
SpokenLanguage; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SpokenLanguage; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3483

Identifier: SpokenLanguage   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: One of the modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from written language, it is characterized by repetition, hesitation forms, pauses, variations in articulation, lapses, as well as differences in vocabulary and grammar. The primary importance spoken language in the analysis, description and teaching of languages has been stressed frequently. Alternative terms: speech, conversation. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 217]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 217]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3483 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


UnattestedVariety

UnattestedVariety; admitted name
UnattestedVariety; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/UnattestedVariety; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3540

Identifier: UnattestedVariety   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: UnattestedVariety is the class of language varieties that are posited to exist or to have existed. Examples include reconstructed languages, such as Proto-Indo-European.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3540 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


WrittenLanguage

WrittenLanguage; admitted name
WrittenLanguage; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLanguage; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3558

Identifier: WrittenLanguage   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: One of the means or modes of linguistic communication. As distinct from spoken language, it does not usually represent all features of speech such as stress and pitch, and lacks the redundancy and lapses of spoken conversation (written dialogue and reading aloud are more akin to written than to spoken language). Also reference orthography. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 258]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 258]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanLanguageVariety. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3558 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LinguisticDataStructure

LinguisticDataStructure; admitted name
LinguisticDataStructure; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3298

Identifier: LinguisticDataStructure   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A linguistic data structure is an abstract container for grouping together instances of linguistic data, usually to suit a particular theory or computational implementation. Examples include: feature structures, lexical entries, and paradigms.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3298 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


FeatureAssignmentSystem

FeatureAssignmentSystem; admitted name
FeatureAssignmentSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureAssignmentSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3190

Identifier: FeatureAssignmentSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: (The term 'assignment') was first used with respect to feature values by Corbett (1991) in his discussion of mechanisms for allotting nouns to different genders. Native speakers have the ability to ‘work out’ the gender of a noun, and models of this ability have been called ‘gender assignment systems’. So far, the concept of ‘assignment of a feature value’ has not been used outside gender. For some features, there may not be as much to say as for gender. However, using the concept of ‘assignment’ with respect to the values of all features is useful to be able to compare the features. Therefore, for this typology I have adopted the following definition: an assignment system is a set of rules that realise the value of a feature on an element. Note, however, that under this definition, a gender value is ‘assigned’ both to nouns, and to targets of agreement in gender with the noun. [Kibort 2008d: 8]
Source: [Kibort 2008d: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3190 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FormalAssignmentSystem

FormalAssignmentSystem; admitted name
FormalAssignmentSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FormalAssignmentSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3206

Identifier: FormalAssignmentSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureAssignmentSystem

Definition: One more distinction can be made within both types of inherently assigned feature values: that between formal and semantic assignment. This distinction was proposed by Corbett (1991) to account for the criteria according to which nouns can be allotted to genders. Corbett demonstrates that gender assignment systems in languages can be semantic or semantic-and-formal – that is, the set of rules that determine the assignment of inherent gender values to nouns refer to the meaning of words, or a combination of the meaning of words and the form of words. [Kibort 2008d: 12]
Source: [Kibort 2008d: 12]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureAssignmentSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3206 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemanticAssignmentSystem

SemanticAssignmentSystem; admitted name
SemanticAssignmentSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticAssignmentSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3466

Identifier: SemanticAssignmentSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureAssignmentSystem

Definition: For natural language understanding, the process of fine-grain semantic role assignment is one of the prominent steps, which provides semantic relations between constituents. The sense and sense relations between constituents provide the core meaning of a sentence. Abstract semantic roles include thematic roles, such as agent, theme, and instrument, and secondary roles such as location, time, and manner. [Chen and You 2004: 1]
Source: [Chen and You 2004: 1]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureAssignmentSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3466 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureConstraint

FeatureConstraint; admitted name
FeatureConstraint; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureConstraint; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3191

Identifier: FeatureConstraint   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used in linguistics, and especially in generative grammar, to refer to a condition which restricts the application of a rule, to ensure that the sentences generated are well formed. For example, in generative phonology, a distinction can be made between ‘simulatenous’ and ‘sequential’ constraints: the former states the restrictions on the simulataneous occurrence of features, e.g. a segment cannot be at once [+high] and [+low]; the latter states the restrictions on sequences of features, e.g. whether a language permits consonant clusters. In generative syntax there are also several constraints which have to be imposed in order to prevent the derivation of ill formed phrase-markers, e.g. constraints on the ordering of rules. The notion of constraints takes on a different direction in optimality theory, where it is the principle explanatory device. Here, constraints are ways of characterizing language universals. Each language has its own ranking of constraints (e.g. which determine morpheme position or syllable structure), and differences between these rankings result in the variations observed between languages. [Crystal 2003: 101]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 101]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3191 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureDistributionSystem

FeatureDistributionSystem; admitted name
FeatureDistributionSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureDistributionSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3192

Identifier: FeatureDistributionSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: In a given language, the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined contextually for elements, through agreement or government. FeatureDistributionSystem can have one or two main components: FeatureAgreementSystem, and FeatureGovernmentSystem. [Kibort 2008d]
Source: [Kibort 2008d]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3192 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureAgreementSystem

FeatureAgreementSystem; admitted name
FeatureAgreementSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureAgreementSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3189

Identifier: FeatureAgreementSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureDistributionSystem

Definition: A type of FeatureDistributionSystem; in a given language, it is the system according to which feature values (of a particular feature) are determined for elements through agreement (i.e. where the form of the element is determined by the presence of another element). [Kibort 2008d]
Source: [Kibort 2008d]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureDistributionSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3189 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureGovernmentSystem

FeatureGovernmentSystem; admitted name
FeatureGovernmentSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureGovernmentSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3193

Identifier: FeatureGovernmentSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureDistributionSystem

Definition: The feature of case is typically involved in government. A governor does not bear the feature value it requires of its governee. Government is also asymmetric with regard to the possession of the feature specification by the elements. [Kibort 2008d: 1, 6]
Source: [Kibort 2008d: 1, 6]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureDistributionSystem. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3193 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureSpecification

FeatureSpecification; admitted name
FeatureSpecification; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureSpecification; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3194

Identifier: FeatureSpecification   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A FeatureSpecification is a data structure that groups together a linguistic feature with a value [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
Source: [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3194 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ComplexSpecification

ComplexSpecification; admitted name
ComplexSpecification; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComplexSpecification; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3126

Identifier: ComplexSpecification   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureSpecification

Definition: A ComplexSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose value must be a FeatureStructure. This class gives a feature system its recursive properites [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
Source: [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureSpecification. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3126 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SimpleSpecification

SimpleSpecification; admitted name
SimpleSpecification; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SimpleSpecification; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3477

Identifier: SimpleSpecification   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: FeatureSpecification

Definition: A SimpleSpecification is a kind of FeatureSpecification whose value must be a simple linguistic attribute [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
Source: [Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureSpecification. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3477 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureStructure

FeatureStructure; admitted name
FeatureStructure; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureStructure; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3195

Identifier: FeatureStructure   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A FeatureStructure is a set of one or more FeatureSpecifications. A FeatureStructure is a kind of information structure, a container or data structure, used to group together qualities or features of some object. In a grammatical feature system, a FeatureStructure holds the grammatical information associated with some linguistic unit. In a typed feature system, a FeatureStructure has an associated type, usually a PartOfSpeech. [Shieber 1986; Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000].
Source: [Shieber 1986; Maxwell, Simons and Hayashi 2000]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3195 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeatureSystem

FeatureSystem; admitted name
FeatureSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeatureSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3196

Identifier: FeatureSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An utterance is divided into parts, which are assigned to word classes and then subclassified in terms of their "accidents" or properties. [Blevins 2006: 390] The properties, also referred to as features or categories, express what is shared by different linguistic elements, as opposed to what is idiosyncratic. [Kibort 2008d: 1]
Source: [Blevins 2006: 390; Kibort 2008d: 1]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3196 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterlinearGlossedText

InterlinearGlossedText; admitted name
InterlinearGlossedText; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterlinearGlossedText; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3268

Identifier: InterlinearGlossedText   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Interlinear glossed text (IGT) is a linguistic data structure meant to display morphosyntactic structure: morphemes, morpheme boundaries, morpheme types (clitics, prefixes, reduplicated forms), morphosyntactic features/values and part of speech information. At a minimum, an instance of IGT includes a single line of source language followed by a translation line. Often, a second gloss line is included to show detailed morphosyntactic structure using both words and phrases from the target language and various labels, or 'grams', that indicate morphosyntactic features/values, etc. It is possible to include separate lines for the orthographic form, phonetic form, and phonological form. Standards for IGT include the Leipzig Glossing Rules.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3268 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LexicalItem

LexicalItem; admitted name
LexicalItem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LexicalItem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3294

Identifier: LexicalItem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A unit of the vocabulary of a language such as a word, phrase or term as listed in a dictionary. It usually has a pronounceable or graphic form, fulfils a grammatical role in a sentence, and carries semantic meaning. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 128]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 128]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3294 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Lexicon

Lexicon; admitted name
Lexicon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Lexicon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3296

Identifier: Lexicon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: In its most general sense, the term is synonymous with vocabulary. A dictionary can be seen as a set of lexical entries. The lexicon has a special status in generative grammar, where it refers to the component containing all the information about the structural properties of the lexical items in a language. [Crystal 2008: 278] In linguistics, ... we don't normally speak of the vocabulary of a particular language; instead, we speak of the lexicon, the total store of words available to a speaker. Very commonly, the lexicon is not regarded merely as a long list of words. Rather, we conceive the lexicon as a set of lexical resources, including the morphemes of the languages, plus the processes available in the language for constructing words from those resources. Apart from the lexicon of a language as a whole, psycholinguists are interested in the mental lexicon, the words and lexical resources stored in an individual brain. [Trask 1999: 166-167]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 278; Trask 1999: 166-167]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3296 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


StructuralDescription

StructuralDescription; admitted name
StructuralDescription; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StructuralDescription; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3489

Identifier: StructuralDescription   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used in (esp. classical) transformational grammar to refer to an analysis of a terminal string in terms of a labeled bracketing. In transformational analysis, the SD identifies the input to a transformational rule: it specifies which phrase-markers are to be affected by the rule. i.e. which will 'satisfy' or 'meet' the conditions of the rule. The terms structural analysis and structure index are also used. [Crystal 2008: 458]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 458]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3489 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Term

Term; admitted name
Term; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Term; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3520

Identifier: Term   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A vocabulary item which has a special meaning in a particular subject field, e.g. 'sound' or 'voice' in phonetics, or 'butterfly' in swimming. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 236]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 236]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3520 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Termset

Termset; admitted name
Termset; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Termset; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3523

Identifier: Termset   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A set of scientific terms used as part of an annotation system, usually the standard terms from a particular linguistic theory.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticDataStructure. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3523 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LinguisticExpression

LinguisticExpression; admitted name
LinguisticExpression; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticExpression; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3299

Identifier: LinguisticExpression   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A LinguisticExpression is any physical form (sound, visual image or sequence thereof) used to represent a linguistic unit. A linguistic expression may be spoken, written, or signed. A linguistic expression is distinct form the actual process (speaking, writing, signing) that produces the expression.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Object. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3299 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


LinguisticProperty

LinguisticProperty; admitted name
LinguisticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3300

Identifier: LinguisticProperty   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: LinguisticProperty is the class of properties that pertain to linguistic units. A unit's properties determine its behavior in a grammatical system. Specific kinds of properties are relevant to certain types of units. In some language, for example, tense properties may be relevant for verbs. See also Feature and FeatureValue for the corresponding data structure for properties.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3300 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


LinguisticSign

LinguisticSign; admitted name
LinguisticSign; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticSign; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3301

Identifier: LinguisticSign   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A linguistic sign is an abstract structure whose instances participate in a linguistic system, or language. By definition, a linguistic sign must have a form component (whose elements are phonological units), a grammatical component (whose elements are grammatical units), and a meaning component (whose elements are semantic units). The formal structure of a linguistic sign is determined by the grammar of a language. The information value of a linguistic sign, its meaning, is not fixed, but determined by the conventions of the language. The relation of form to meaning is largely arbitrary within a semiotic system. Signs are classified primarily according to what kinds of formal relations they participate in, and, secondly, according to their complexity (whether they are atomic or composed of other signs). Signs range from morphological and syntactic constructions to whole discourse segments [de Saussure 1983; Hervey 1979; Pollard and Sag 1994].
Source: [de Saussure 1983; Hervey 1979; Pollard and Sag 1994]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3301 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LinguisticSystem

LinguisticSystem; admitted name
LinguisticSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3302

Identifier: LinguisticSystem   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used to describe a language as a whole, with each of its component parts functioning according to an overall convention of usage to enable the members of a speech community to interchange information. Most linguists agree on a 'system of systems', i.e. the arrangement of units on hierarchically ordered and inter-related levels. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 231]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 231]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3302 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


LinguisticUnit

LinguisticUnit; admitted name
LinguisticUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3304

Identifier: LinguisticUnit   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: This term is often used in linguistics and phonetics to refer to any entity which constitutes the focus of an enquiry. The unit is the stretch of language that carries grammatical patterns, and within which grammatical choices are made. For example, the unit sentence consists of one or more instances of the unit clause, and so on. [Crystal 2008: 503]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 503]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3304 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


MorphosemanticProperty

MorphosemanticProperty; admitted name
MorphosemanticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3325

Identifier: MorphosemanticProperty   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A property whose values are not involved in agreement or government, but are inherent only. That is, the elements on which the values are found are not controllers of agreement. Because it is not involved in either agreement or government, a morphosemantic feature is not relevant to syntax. [Kibort 2008f]
Source: [Kibort 2008f]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3325 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


AspectProperty

AspectProperty; admitted name
AspectProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3089

Identifier: AspectProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The term 'aspect'; designates the perspective taken on the internal temporal organization of the event, and different values of the Aspect Feature distinguish different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of the same event [Comrie 1976: 3ff], after [Holt 1943: 6; Bybee 2003: 157]. The 'event' is understood here as a general term covering any situation type (a state, activity, accomplishment, achievement, etc.) as expressed by the verb phrase of the construction. Unlike Tense Feature, which expresses event-external time and is deictic, Aspect Feature is event-internal and non-deictic, as it is not concerned with relating the time of the event to any other time point. [Kibort 2008e]
Source: [Comrie 1976: 3ff; Holt 1943: 6; Bybee 2003: 157; Kibort 2008e; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3089 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CompletiveAspect

CompletiveAspect; admitted name
CompletiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CompletiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3125

Identifier: CompletiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A term used to denote verbal aspect that focuses on the conclusion of a process or action. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]
Source: [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3125 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ContinuousAspect

ContinuousAspect; admitted name
ContinuousAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ContinuousAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3139

Identifier: ContinuousAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, but the situation cannot be regarded as habitual (i.e. it cannot be regarded as a characteristic feature of a whole period). Hence, continuousness can be defined negatively as imperfectivity that is not habituality [Comrie 1976: 26-32], and it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Continuous, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express continuousness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Continuous aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: progressive meaning and nonprogressive meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
Source: [Comrie 1976: 26-32; Kibort 2008c: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3139 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DistributiveAspect

DistributiveAspect; admitted name
DistributiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DistributiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3169

Identifier: DistributiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A verbal aspect expressing that the action or state denoted by the verb is performed or experienced simultaneously by more than one individual or object. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 59]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3169 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DurativeAspect

DurativeAspect; admitted name
DurativeAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DurativeAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3175

Identifier: DurativeAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: Events which involve some duration [Bhat 1999: 58].
Source: [Bhat 1999: 58]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3175 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FrequentiveAspect

FrequentiveAspect; admitted name
FrequentiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FrequentiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3208

Identifier: FrequentiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: Events which are frequently repeated, differs from habitual in that it can only be based upon the observation of several occurrences of the event concerned, whereas habitual can be based upon the observation of a single occurrence [Bhat 1999: 53].
Source: [Bhat 1999: 53]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3208 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HabitualAspect

HabitualAspect; admitted name
HabitualAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HabitualAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3232

Identifier: HabitualAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about is characteristic of an extended period of time -- so extended that the situation is viewed as characteristic of the whole period. The decision that a situation is characteristic of an extended period of time is not in itself linguistic, but once it has been made, an explicitly habitual form can be used to describe it. Note that the classification of a situation as characteristic of a period of time is not derived directly from the comparison of their length or frequency; hence, the situation may be objectively either long or short, and either frequent or infrequent, with respect to the period it characterises. This is because the way we choose to characterise can involve a component which is objectively small in relation to the whole. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Habitual, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express habituality, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Habituality can in principle be combined with any other semantic aspectual values appropriate to situations that can be protracted in time or iterated [Comrie 1976: 26-32]. Since habituality is concerned with the internal temporal structure of the (extended) event, it can be regarded as a sub-type of imperfectivity. [Kibort 2008c: 7]
Source: [Comrie 1976: 26-32; Kibort 2008c: 7]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3232 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ImperfectiveAspect

ImperfectiveAspect; admitted name
ImperfectiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImperfectiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3246

Identifier: ImperfectiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be looked at from inside, from within its temporal boundaries; imperfective aspect is crucially concerned with the internal temporal structure of the event [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Imperfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the imperfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. Imperfective aspectual meaning can be further subdivided into two types: habitual meaning and continuous meaning. These two aspectual meanings may or may not be grammaticalised as separate aspect values. [Kibort 2008c: 7]
Source: [Comrie 1976: 16ff; Kibort 2008c: 7]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3246 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InceptiveAspect

InceptiveAspect; admitted name
InceptiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InceptiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3251

Identifier: InceptiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: InceptiveAspect, also called the ingressive, encodes the beginning portion of some event [Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240; Bhat 1999: 176].
Source: [Bybee 1985: 147, 149; Payne 1997: 240; Bhat 1999: 176]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3251 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IterativeAspect

IterativeAspect; admitted name
IterativeAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IterativeAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3282

Identifier: IterativeAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: IterativeAspect, also called repetitive, encodes a number of events of the same type that are repeated on a particular occasion. The time interval which is relevant to the iterative is relatively shorter than in the case of the habitual [Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127]. Portrays events repeated on the same occasion (like the iterative knocking on the door) [Bhat 1999: 53].
Source: [Bybee 1985: 150; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 127; Bhat 1999: 53]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3282 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NonProgressiveAspect

NonProgressiveAspect; admitted name
NonProgressiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonProgressiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3345

Identifier: NonProgressiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property (also stative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, but is regarded as a continuing state. Hence, Nonprogressive Aspect can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly nonprogressive (i.e. explicitly stative) forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Nonprogressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express nonprogressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
Source: [Kibort 2008c: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3345 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PerfectiveAspect

PerfectiveAspect; admitted name
PerfectiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PerfectiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3382

Identifier: PerfectiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the event spoken about is to be viewed as a bounded whole, looked at from outside, without necessarily distinguishing any of its internal structure [Comrie 1976: 16ff]. Typically, for an aspect value to be labeled as Perfective, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express the perfective viewpoint, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 7]
Source: [Comrie 1976: 16ff; Kibort 2008c: 7]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3382 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PhasalAspect

PhasalAspect; admitted name
PhasalAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhasalAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3388

Identifier: PhasalAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A set of aspectual distinctions involving relations between a background situation (the reference situation) and a situation located relative to the reference situation (the denoted situation). In English, phasal distinctions are expressed by auxiliary-headed constructions, like the inceptive, progressive, and perfect constructions, whose head verbs express the aspectual class of the denoted situation. The aspectual class of the denoted situation differs from that of the reference situation [Michaelis 1998: xv]. An event may have a beginning and an end, a middle portion (continuing or changing), and also an ensuing result or an altered state. These are considered to be the various "phases" of an event. A speaker may talk about an event from the point of view of any of these individual phases, and his language may have inflectional (or other type of) markers for representing these distinctions. Since such markers indicate distinctions in the temporal structure of an event, we may regard them as belonging to the category of aspect. It has been suggested [Dik 1989: 186] that these may be grouped under a subcategory (or "level") of aspect called "phasal aspect". [Bhat 1999: 49]
Source: [Michaelis 1998: xv; Dik 1989: 186; Bhat 1999: 49]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3388 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProgressiveAspect

ProgressiveAspect; admitted name
ProgressiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3429

Identifier: ProgressiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A value of Aspect Property (also called Nonstative aspect) assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that which indicates that the situation spoken about has internal temporal structure, it cannot be regarded as habitual, and reference is made to this situation in progress. Hence, progressiveness can be defined as the combination of progressive meaning with nonstative meaning, and it can be regarded as a sub-type of continuousness (which, in turn, is a sub-type of imperfectivity). Since languages have different criteria for classifying predicates as stative or not, they may have different rules for determining when explicitly progressive forms can be used. Typically, for an aspect value to be labelled as Progressive, the aspectual meaning has to minimally express progressiveness, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings, or actionality distinctions. [Kibort 2008c: 8]
Source: [Kibort 2008c: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3429 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


QuantificationalAspect

QuantificationalAspect; admitted name
QuantificationalAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/QuantificationalAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3438

Identifier: QuantificationalAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A speaker may report an event as occurring once only (semelfactive) or several times (iterative); he may view it as a specific event or as part of a general habit of carrying out similar events; he may also differentiate between different degrees of frequency with which the event occurs. The markers that a given language provides for one or more of these meaning distinctions can be grouped under a subcategory called “quantificational aspect”, as all of them refer to the quantitative aspect of the event concerned. [Bhat 1999: 53]
Source: [Bhat 1999: 53]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3438 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemelfactiveAspect

SemelfactiveAspect; admitted name
SemelfactiveAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemelfactiveAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3470

Identifier: SemelfactiveAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: Momentaneous, without an inherent end-point, as sneeze [Michaelis 1998: xvi].
Source: [Michaelis 1998: xvi]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3470 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SimultaneousAspect

SimultaneousAspect; admitted name
SimultaneousAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SimultaneousAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3478

Identifier: SimultaneousAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: A temporal relation in which the events or states of proposition(s) are communicated as occurring at the same time. [SIL International 2004]
Source: [SIL International 2004]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3478 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TerminativeAspect

TerminativeAspect; admitted name
TerminativeAspect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeAspect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3521

Identifier: TerminativeAspect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AspectProperty

Definition: Denotes the termination of an event [Bhat 1999: 92].
Source: [Bhat 1999: 92]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AspectProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3521 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MoodProperty

MoodProperty; admitted name
MoodProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3322

Identifier: MoodProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: MoodProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of mood of a proposition. Among the traditionally defined properties are Declarative, Imperative and Interrogative. This class of properties contains both attitude (e.g. optative, volitive, subjunctive) and speech-act (e.g. imperative, commissive) values.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3322 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DubitiveMood

DubitiveMood; admitted name
DubitiveMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DubitiveMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3174

Identifier: DubitiveMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: DubitiveMood indicates a speaker's doubt or uncertainty about a proposition. [Palmer 2001: 24-25]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 24-25]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3174 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EpistemicModality

EpistemicModality; admitted name
EpistemicModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EpistemicModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3179

Identifier: EpistemicModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: EpistemicModality indicates that a state of affairs is known to be possible or certain (necessary). [Palmer 2001: 7-8]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 7-8]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3179 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IndicativeMood

IndicativeMood; admitted name
IndicativeMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IndicativeMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3255

Identifier: IndicativeMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to imperative, subjunctive, etc., moods. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types used in the expression of statements and questions, e.g. the horse is walking. With reference to statements, the term ‘declarative’ may be used. [Crystal 2008: 242]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 242]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3255 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IrrealisMood

IrrealisMood; admitted name
IrrealisMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IrrealisMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3280

Identifier: IrrealisMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: Where the proposition is weakly asserted to be true, but the speaker is not ready to support the assertion. Irrealis adverbs include 'maybe' and 'hopefully'. [Crystal 2008: 403]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 403]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3280 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OptativeMood

OptativeMood; admitted name
OptativeMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OptativeMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3360

Identifier: OptativeMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: Optative indicates that the speaker wishes or hopes that the expressed proposition be the case [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 179; Palmer 2001: 204]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3360 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProhibitiveMood

ProhibitiveMood; admitted name
ProhibitiveMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProhibitiveMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3431

Identifier: ProhibitiveMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: Prohibitive mood is a directive mood that signals a prohibition. It is distinguished by the use of a negated imperative sentence that employs a negative marker distinct from that used in declarative sentences, or a verb form different from that of the imperative. [SIL International 2004]
Source: [SIL International 2004]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3431 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RealisMood

RealisMood; admitted name
RealisMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RealisMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3441

Identifier: RealisMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: Realis modality is a modality that connotes the factuality of a proposition. In its broad usage, the term realis is approximately equivalent in meaning to the term indicative, which in turn is used, narrowly, as a synonym to declarative. [SIL International 2004]
Source: [SIL International 2004]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3441 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubjunctiveMood

SubjunctiveMood; admitted name
SubjunctiveMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubjunctiveMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3493

Identifier: SubjunctiveMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: SubjunctiveMood is used to express '"states of affairs" whose occurrence could easily be denied or affirmed, but instead is left unasserted.' [Lavandera 1983: 211]
Source: [Lavandera 1983: 211]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3493 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TimitiveMood

TimitiveMood; admitted name
TimitiveMood; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TimitiveMood; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3529

Identifier: TimitiveMood   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MoodProperty

Definition: TimitiveMood encodes that the speaker fears something expressed in what is said [Palmer 2001: 13, 22].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 13, 22]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MoodProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3529 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TenseProperty

TenseProperty; admitted name
TenseProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3519

Identifier: TenseProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Following [Comrie 1985: vii], we take tense to be the grammaticalisation of location in time. Tense Property is assigned to clauses on the basis of semantics: a tense value is selected for the clause from the range of tense values available in the given language. Tense Property is typically realised on the verb, but it may be found expressed multiply on different elements in the same clause. For example, tense may be found on more than one element of the verbal complex (e.g. in Kayardild [Evans 2003] or Paamese [Crowley 2002: 68], or on verbs as well as on certain spatial and temporal adverbs and certain prepositions in the same clause (e.g. in Malagasy [Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367], [Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]. In the given language, the values of the Tense Property are assigned to the designated elements as a consequence of semantic choice, and all the available options of particular tense values expressing particular tense meanings can be described with a Tense Assignment System for that language. Since no languages have been found for which tense values are assigned by a Tense Distribution System (i.e. contextually, through agreement or government), Tense Property is not a Morphosyntactic Property. Instead, it is a Morphosemantic Property only.
Source: [Comrie 1985: vii; Evans 2003; Crowley 2002: 68; Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367; Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3519 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CloseFutureTense

CloseFutureTense; admitted name
CloseFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CloseFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3117

Identifier: CloseFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Also called ImmediateFutureTense, this grammatical class names an upcoming situation which is to take place shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245].
Source: [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3117 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FutureInFutureTense

FutureInFutureTense; admitted name
FutureInFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3213

Identifier: FutureInFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: FutureInFutureTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a temporal reference point that itself is located in the future relative to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 128].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 128]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3213 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FutureInPastTense

FutureInPastTense; admitted name
FutureInPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureInPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3214

Identifier: FutureInPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: FutureInPastTense locates the situation in question in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 128].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 128]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3214 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FuturePerfectTense

FuturePerfectTense; admitted name
FuturePerfectTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FuturePerfectTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3215

Identifier: FuturePerfectTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Describes an event that occurs after the time of speaking but before some reference point in time which also occurs after the time of speaking. This is also known as PastInFutureTense. [Comrie 1985: 126]
Source: [Comrie 1985: 126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3215 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FutureTense

FutureTense; admitted name
FutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3216

Identifier: FutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. Posterior temporal relationships obtaining in a 'perfect' context occur when the reference point is moved away from the event time. There are various logical possibilities for locating the reference point with respect to the other two points, though none of them seem to be typically grammaticalised as separate tenses. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Future Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the posterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008c: 5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Kibort 2008c: 5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3216 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HesternalPastTense

HesternalPastTense; admitted name
HesternalPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HesternalPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3235

Identifier: HesternalPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: HesternalPastTense locates the situation in question somewhere in the span beginning with the period defined culturally as 'yesterday' and extends back through some period that is considered nonremote [Comrie 1985: 87-88; Dahl 1985: 126].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 87-88; Dahl 1985: 126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3235 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HodiernalFutureTense

HodiernalFutureTense; admitted name
HodiernalFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3237

Identifier: HodiernalFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: HodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' [Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 86; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3237 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HodiernalPastTense

HodiernalPastTense; admitted name
HodiernalPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HodiernalPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3238

Identifier: HodiernalPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: HodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before the moment of utterance within the span culturally defined as 'today' [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 125-126]. Contrasts with PreHodiernalPastTense.
Source: [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 125-126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3238 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ImmediateFutureTense

ImmediateFutureTense; admitted name
ImmediateFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediateFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3243

Identifier: ImmediateFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: ImmediateFutureTense, also called 'close future', locates the situation in question shortly after the moment of utterance [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245].
Source: [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 244-245]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3243 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ImmediatePastTense

ImmediatePastTense; admitted name
ImmediatePastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImmediatePastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3244

Identifier: ImmediatePastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: ImmediatePastTense locates the situation in question at a time considered very recent in relation to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 87].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 87]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3244 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NearFutureTense

NearFutureTense; admitted name
NearFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NearFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3330

Identifier: NearFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: In languages which distinguish different degrees of remoteness in the future, the near future refers to the least remote future. [Comrie 1985: 46]
Source: [Comrie 1985: 46]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3330 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NonFutureTense

NonFutureTense; admitted name
NonFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3343

Identifier: NonFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: NonFutureTense locates the situation in question at or before the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a FutureTense [Comrie 1985: 49].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 49]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3343 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NonPastTense

NonPastTense; admitted name
NonPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3344

Identifier: NonPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: NonPastTense locates the situation in question at or after the moment of utterance, and contrasts with a past tense [Comrie 1985: 48-49].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 48-49]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3344 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PastInPastTense

PastInPastTense; admitted name
PastInPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastInPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3376

Identifier: PastInPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Locates the situation in question prior to a reference time in the past before the time of the speaking event. This is also known as the PluperfectTense [Comrie 1985: 125].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 125]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3376 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PastPerfectTense

PastPerfectTense; admitted name
PastPerfectTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastPerfectTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3377

Identifier: PastPerfectTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A tense in which the event that the speaker is referring to precedes the time of the state of affairs denoted by the sentence. Also referred to as 'past in past' form. Past perfect can also be used modally to represent situations as non-factual or counterfactual. [Michaelis 2006: 223; Depraetere and Reed 2006: 271]
Source: [Michaelis 2006: 223; Depraetere and Reed 2006: 271]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3377 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PastTense

PastTense; admitted name
PastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3378

Identifier: PastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Feature assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from Reichenbach (1947), who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of an anterior temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead at the moment of speech. The event time is still anterior to the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the event and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have read this book, I have seen John --- hence the interpretation that the event has an effect or is in some way still relevant at the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' anterior meaning and labelled simply as Past. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Past Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the anterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal relationships or aspectual and/or modal meanings. For example, when the usage of the Past Tense value is restricted to a semantically defined domain, it is conventional to add a further qualification to the label of the Past Tense value (e.g. Past Imperfective --- when the anterior temporal relationship is necessarily combined with an aspectual meaning of the Imperfective Aspect value, and grammaticalised as a single [Tense-Aspect-Mood (TAM)] category in the language). [Kibort 2008c: 4]
Source: [Kibort 2008c: 4]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3378 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PerfectTense

PerfectTense; admitted name
PerfectTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PerfectTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3381

Identifier: PerfectTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Feature assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior, simultaneous, or posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance, and additionally the reference point from which this event is viewed is separated and moved away from the event time. This alters the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. 'Perfect' temporal relations contrast with 'simple' temporal relations in which the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947]. There are two types of 'perfect' context which may lead to separate tense values: (1) The first type occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and instead located after the event time. A common example occurs with an anterior temporal relationship, when the reference point is moved from the event time to the moment of speech. The event time is anterior to the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the event and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have read this book, I have seen John --- hence the interpretation that the event has an effect or is in some way still relevant at the moment of speech. [Note that in some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' anterior meaning and labelled simply as Past.] The interpretation of this type of the perfect often includes at least two related but distinguishable uses: the resultative perfect (Someone has stolen my purse) and the experiential perfect (I have read this book before) [Dahl and Velupillai 2005: 271]. (2) The second type occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and instead located before the event time. A common example occurs with a simultaneous temporal relationship, when the reference point is moved from the event time and located before the moment of speech. The event time is still simultaneous with the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the reference point and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have lived here [for ten years] --- hence the interpretation that the event which began in the past extends up to the moment of speech. [Note that in some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' simultaneous meaning and labelled simply as Present.] The interpretation of this type of the perfect is often referred to as the universal perfect or perfect of persistent situation. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Perfect Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the meaning resulting from the separation of the reference point from the event time, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008c: 5-6]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Dahl and Velupillai 2005: 271; Kibort 2008c: 5-6]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3381 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PostHodiernalFutureTense

PostHodiernalFutureTense; admitted name
PostHodiernalFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PostHodiernalFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3409

Identifier: PostHodiernalFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: PostHodiernalFutureTense locates the situation in question after the span that is culturally defined as 'today' [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 247]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3409 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PreHodiernalPastTense

PreHodiernalPastTense; admitted name
PreHodiernalPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreHodiernalPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3413

Identifier: PreHodiernalPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: PreHodiernalPastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contrasting HodiernalPastTense. This category must be defined relative to a HodiernalPastTense. [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 98]
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 98]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3413 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PresentPerfectTense

PresentPerfectTense; admitted name
PresentPerfectTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PresentPerfectTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3420

Identifier: PresentPerfectTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Feature assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous with the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'present', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'simultaneous'. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of a simultaneous temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead before the moment of speech. The event time is still simultaneous with the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the reference point and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have lived here [for ten years] --- hence the interpretation that the event which began in the past extends up to the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' simultaneous meaning and labelled simply as Present. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Kibort 2008c: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3420 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PresentTense

PresentTense; admitted name
PresentTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PresentTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3421

Identifier: PresentTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous with the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'present', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'simultaneous'. It is important to note --- for all tense values, but in particular for the Present Tense --- that the 'times' which are used to locate the event, the deictic centre, and the reference point, may or may not be 'points' on the time line. Conventionally, these concepts are considered neutral with regard to whether they are points or intervals of time longer than a point. In a formal model of tense meanings they could, for example, be represented as sets (of points): in order to capture temporal distinctions, the notion of an event being 'simultaneous with the moment of speech', may be understood as (the set of) event time (points) and (the set of) speech time (points) having a non-empty intersection. Hence, this semantic model of the Present Tense value may include the interpretation of the present as 'universal' or 'generic'. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of a simultaneous temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead before the moment of speech. The event time is still simultaneous with the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the reference point and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have lived here [for ten years] --- hence the interpretation that the event which began in the past extends up to the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' simultaneous meaning and labelled simply as Present. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Present Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the simultaneous temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Kibort 2008c: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3421 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RecentPastTense

RecentPastTense; admitted name
RecentPastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RecentPastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3442

Identifier: RecentPastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: RecentPastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, but by culturally and situationally defined criteria, usually within the span ranging from yesterday to a week or a few months previous [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 121-122].
Source: [Comrie 1985: 87; Dahl 1985: 121-122]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3442 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RelativeFutureTense

RelativeFutureTense; admitted name
RelativeFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativeFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3450

Identifier: RelativeFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: RelativeFutureTense locates the situation in question after a contextually determined temporal reference point, regardless of the latter's relation to the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985: 69-71]. Also called FuturePerfectTense.
Source: [Comrie 1985: 69-71]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3450 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RelativePastTense

RelativePastTense; admitted name
RelativePastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3451

Identifier: RelativePastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: RelativePastTense locates the situation in question before that of a contextually determined temporal reference point [Comrie 1985: 104]. Also called PastPerfectTense.
Source: [Comrie 1985: 104]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3451 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RelativePresentTense

RelativePresentTense; admitted name
RelativePresentTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePresentTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3452

Identifier: RelativePresentTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A tense that expresses that a situation is simultaneous with the time of some other post-present situation. [Hollebrandse, Holt and Vet 2005: 30]
Source: [Hollebrandse, Holt and Vet 2005: 30]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3452 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RemoteFutureTense

RemoteFutureTense; admitted name
RemoteFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemoteFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3455

Identifier: RemoteFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: RemoteFutureTense locates the situation in question at a time that is considered relatively distant. It is characteristically after the span of time culturally defined as 'tomorrow'. [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94]
Source: [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 94]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3455 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RemotePastTense

RemotePastTense; admitted name
RemotePastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RemotePastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3456

Identifier: RemotePastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: RemotePastTense locates the situation in question prior to the present moment, usually more than a few days ago [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 88]. Subsumes notion of PreHesternalPast tense, which locates the situation in question before that of an opposing hesternal past tense [Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98].
Source: [Dahl 1985: 121; Comrie 1985: 88; Bybee, Perkins, Pagliuca 1994: 98]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3456 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SimpleFutureTense

SimpleFutureTense; admitted name
SimpleFutureTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SimpleFutureTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3474

Identifier: SimpleFutureTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Future tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as posterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'future', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'posterior'. The posterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Kibort 2008c: 5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947: 288; Kibort 2008c: 5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3474 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SimplePastTense

SimplePastTense; admitted name
SimplePastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SimplePastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3475

Identifier: SimplePastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Past tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modeling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about . [Kibort 2008c: 4]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947: 288; Kibort 2008c: 4]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3475 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SimplePresentTense

SimplePresentTense; admitted name
SimplePresentTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SimplePresentTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3476

Identifier: SimplePresentTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: Present tense assigns a value to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous to the deictic centre of the utterance. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947: 288], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947: 288; Kibort 2008c: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3476 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


StillTense

StillTense; admitted name
StillTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StillTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3486

Identifier: StillTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: StillPresentTense is similar to PresentTense but carries the presupposition that an event or state held before the moment of utterance. In positive declarative clauses, still present tense asserts that the event or state holds at the moment of utterance [Comrie 1985, 54].
Source: [Comrie 1985, 54]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3486 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MorphosyntacticProperty

MorphosyntacticProperty; admitted name
MorphosyntacticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3326

Identifier: MorphosyntacticProperty   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: MorphosyntacticFeature is the class of linguistic features that govern the grammatical behavior of morphosyntactic units. E.g., two morphosyntactic units can agree according to shared morphosyntactic features. Morphosyntactic features are also called grammatical categories. This class is intended to represent only the formal aspects of morphosyntax; that is, there is no notional component. In a grammatical system, such features occur in contrast to one another other, and are typically expressed in the same fashion. [Crystal 1985: 43-44; Hopper, P. 1992: 81; Bybee 1985: 191]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 43-44; Hopper, P. 1992: 81; Bybee 1985: 191]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3326 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


CaseProperty

CaseProperty; admitted name
CaseProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3104

Identifier: CaseProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: CaseProperty is the class of properties that concerns the grammatical encoding of a noun's relationship (syntactic or semantic) to some other element in the sentence, such as a verb, noun, pronoun, or adposition [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 35; Crystal 1980: 53-54; Anderson 1985: 179-180; Andrews 1985: 7172; Kuno 1973: 45; Blake 2001].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 35; Crystal 1980: 53-54; Anderson 1985: 179-180; Andrews 1985: 7172; Kuno 1973: 45; Blake 2001]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3104 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AbessiveCase

AbessiveCase; admitted name
AbessiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbessiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3055

Identifier: AbessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AbessiveCase expresses the lack or absence of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning of the English preposition 'without' [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3, 35].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3, 35]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3055 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AblativeCase

AblativeCase; admitted name
AblativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AblativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3057

Identifier: AblativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: Ablative case denotes the source, agent, means, and occasionally also time or place of an an act or occurence. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 3]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3057 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AbsolutiveCase

AbsolutiveCase; admitted name
AbsolutiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3059

Identifier: AbsolutiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AbsolutiveCase in ergative-absolutive languages marks referents that would generally be the subjects of intransitive verbs or the objects of transitive verbs in the translational equivalents of nominative-accusative languages [Anderson 1985: 181; Crystal 1985: 1; Andrews 1985: 138].
Source: [Anderson 1985: 181; Crystal 1985: 1; Andrews 1985: 138]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3059 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AccusativeCase

AccusativeCase; admitted name
AccusativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AccusativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3061

Identifier: AccusativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AccusativeCase in nominative-accusative languages marks certain syntactic functions, usually direct objects [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 3, 156; Crystal 1980: 11, 246; Andrews 1985: 75; Anderson 1985: 181].
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 3, 156; Crystal 1980: 11, 246; Andrews 1985: 75; Anderson 1985: 181]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3061 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AdessiveCase

AdessiveCase; admitted name
AdessiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AdessiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3065

Identifier: AdessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AdessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location near/at which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'at' or 'near' [Crystal 1997: 8].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3065 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AllativeCase

AllativeCase; admitted name
AllativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AllativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3075

Identifier: AllativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AllativeCase expresses motion to or toward the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6, 9, 216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 6, 9, 216; Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 1213]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3075 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AversiveCase

AversiveCase; admitted name
AversiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AversiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3096

Identifier: AversiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: AversiveCase expresses fear or is literally translated as 'turning from' in some languages [Blake 2001: 156].
Source: [Blake 2001: 156]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3096 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


BenefactiveCase

BenefactiveCase; admitted name
BenefactiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BenefactiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3099

Identifier: BenefactiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: BenefactiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause [Crystal 1980: 43].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 43]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3099 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ComitativeCase

ComitativeCase; admitted name
ComitativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComitativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3119

Identifier: ComitativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ComitativeCase expresses accompaniment. It carries the meaning 'with' or 'accompanied by' [Anderson 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42; Dixon, R. 1972: 12].
Source: [Anderson 1985: 186; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 42; Dixon, R. 1972: 12]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3119 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ContablativeCase

ContablativeCase; admitted name
ContablativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ContablativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3135

Identifier: ContablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ContablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location 'from near' which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from near'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContablativeCase, namely -raš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3135 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ContallativeCase

ContallativeCase; admitted name
ContallativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ContallativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3136

Identifier: ContallativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ContallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContallativeCase, namely -rši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3136 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ConterminativeCase

ConterminativeCase; admitted name
ConterminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ConterminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3137

Identifier: ConterminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ConterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the vicinity of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'moving into the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ConterminativeCase, namely -rakana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3137 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ContlativeCase

ContlativeCase; admitted name
ContlativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ContlativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3140

Identifier: ContlativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ContlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location in the vicinity of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'in the vicinity of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing ContlativeCase, namely -rak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3140 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DativeCase

DativeCase; admitted name
DativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3148

Identifier: DativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: DativeCase marks 1) Indirect objects (for languages in which they are held to exist) or 2) nouns having the role of recipient (as of things given), beneficiary of an action, or possessor of an item [Crystal 1980: 102].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 102]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3148 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DelativeCase

DelativeCase; admitted name
DelativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DelativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3152

Identifier: DelativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: DelativeCase expresses motion downward from the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 53]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3152 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ElativeCase

ElativeCase; admitted name
ElativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ElativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3176

Identifier: ElativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ElativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location out of which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'out of' [Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106].
Source: [Lyons 1968: 299; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 64; Crystal 1985: 106]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3176 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ErgativeCase

ErgativeCase; admitted name
ErgativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ErgativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3182

Identifier: ErgativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: ErgativeCase in ergative-absolutive languages generally identifies the subject of transitive verbs in the translation equivalents of nominative-accusative Languages such as English [Crystal 1980: 134; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 78; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 67; Andrews 1985: 138].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 134; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 78; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 67; Andrews 1985: 138]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3182 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EssiveCase

EssiveCase; admitted name
EssiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EssiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3183

Identifier: EssiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: EssiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location at which another referent exists [Lyons 1968: 299, 301; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 2001].
Source: [Lyons 1968: 299, 301; Crystal 1985: 112; Blake 2001]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3183 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GenitiveCase

GenitiveCase; admitted name
GenitiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenitiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3220

Identifier: GenitiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: GenitiveCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is the possessor of the referent of another noun [Crystal 1980: 161; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 94-95, 180; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 82, 172; Anderson 1985: 185; Fleming 1988: 10].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 161; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 94-95, 180; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 82, 172; Anderson 1985: 185; Fleming 1988: 10]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3220 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IllativeCase

IllativeCase; admitted name
IllativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IllativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3242

Identifier: IllativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: IllativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location into which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'into' [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 152].
Source: [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 152]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3242 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InablativeCase

InablativeCase; admitted name
InablativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InablativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3248

Identifier: InablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from within which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from within'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InablativeCase, namely -aš. He gives the example 'aInš-l-a-š' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3248 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InallativeCase

InallativeCase; admitted name
InallativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InallativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3249

Identifier: InallativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is inside the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards in(side)'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InallativeCase, namely -aši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3249 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InessiveCase

InessiveCase; admitted name
InessiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InessiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3257

Identifier: InessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location within which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'within' or 'inside' [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 156]. X in Y.
Source: [Lyons 1968: 299; Crystal 1985: 156]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3257 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InstrumentalCase

InstrumentalCase; admitted name
InstrumentalCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InstrumentalCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3262

Identifier: InstrumentalCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InstrumentalCase indicates that the referent of the noun it marks is the means of the accomplishment of the action expressed by the clause [Crystal 1980: 187; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 114].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 187; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 114]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3262 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterablativeCase

InterablativeCase; admitted name
InterablativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterablativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3263

Identifier: InterablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InterablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from in between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterablativeCase, namely -qIaš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3263 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterallativeCase

InterallativeCase; admitted name
InterallativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterallativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3264

Identifier: InterallativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InterallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is in the middle of the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterallativeCase, namely -qIaši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3264 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InteressiveCase

InteressiveCase; admitted name
InteressiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InteressiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3265

Identifier: InteressiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InteressiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InteressiveCase, namely -qI [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3265 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterlativeCase

InterlativeCase; admitted name
InterlativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterlativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3267

Identifier: InterlativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InterlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location between which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'to the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterlativeCase, namely -qIak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3267 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterminativeCase

InterminativeCase; admitted name
InterminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3269

Identifier: InterminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: Expresses the notion of something moving into the inside of a reference of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'into the inside of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterminativeCase, namely -akana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3269 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterterminativeCase

InterterminativeCase; admitted name
InterterminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterterminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3273

Identifier: InterterminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: InterterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the middle of the referent of the noun it marks, but not through it. It has the meaning 'into the middle of'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing InterterminativeCase, namely -qIakana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3273 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IntertranslativeCase

IntertranslativeCase; admitted name
IntertranslativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IntertranslativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3274

Identifier: IntertranslativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: IntertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory between the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the in between'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing IntertranslativeCase, namely -qIaXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3274 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IntranslativeCase

IntranslativeCase; admitted name
IntranslativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IntranslativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3277

Identifier: IntranslativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: IntranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving through the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along through'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing IntranslativeCase, namely -aXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3277 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LativeCase

LativeCase; admitted name
LativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3293

Identifier: LativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: LativeCase expresses 'motion up to the location of,' or 'as far as' the referent of the noun it marks [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 121]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3293 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LocativeCase

LocativeCase; admitted name
LocativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3306

Identifier: LocativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: (adj./n.) In languages which express grammatical relationships by means of inflections, this term refers to the form taken by a noun phrase (often a single noun or pronoun), when it typically expresses the idea of location of an entity or action. Structures which express locational meaning may also be referred to as locative, e.g. in 'The woman was standing at a bus stop', 'at a bus stop' could be called a locative phrase. [Crystal 2008: 288]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 288]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3306 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MalefactiveCase

MalefactiveCase; admitted name
MalefactiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MalefactiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3310

Identifier: MalefactiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: Opposite of BenefactiveCase; used when the marked noun is adversely affected in the clause. [Zúñiga and Kittilä 2010: 5]
Source: [Zúñiga and Kittilä 2010: 5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3310 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NominativeCase

NominativeCase; admitted name
NominativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NominativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3341

Identifier: NominativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: NominativeCase identifies clause subjects in nominative-accusative languages. It is usually the unmarked case. Nouns used in isolation often have this case. [Crystal 1980: 242; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 147; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 242; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 147; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 224]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3341 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ObliqueCase

ObliqueCase; admitted name
ObliqueCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliqueCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3357

Identifier: ObliqueCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: In a direct/oblique system or in a nominative/oblique system, oblique case is the term for all roles not marked by the direct case or nominative case. In the phrase 'the oblique cases' it is used to refer to a set of cases excluding the nominative (occasionally the nominative or accusative). [Bauer 2004: 27]
Source: [Bauer 2004: 27]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3357 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PartitiveCase

PartitiveCase; admitted name
PartitiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartitiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3373

Identifier: PartitiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: PartitiveCase expresses the partial nature of the referent of the noun it marks, as opposed to expressing the whole unit or class of which the referent is a part. This case may be found in items such as the following: existential clauses, nouns that are accompanied by numerals or units of measure, or predications of material from which something is made. It often has a meaning similar to the English word 'some'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk et al. 1985: 249; Sebeok 1946: 1214]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 161; Richards, Platt and Weber 1985: 208; Quirk et al. 1985: 249; Sebeok 1946: 1214]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3373 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PerlativeCase

PerlativeCase; admitted name
PerlativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PerlativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3383

Identifier: PerlativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: PerlativeCase expresses that something moved 'through','across', or 'along' the referent of the noun that is marked [Blake 2001].
Source: [Blake 2001]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3383 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PossessedCase

PossessedCase; admitted name
PossessedCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PossessedCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3406

Identifier: PossessedCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: PossessedCase is used to mark the noun whose referent is possessed by the referent of another noun.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3406 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubablativeCase

SubablativeCase; admitted name
SubablativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubablativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3490

Identifier: SubablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SubablativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location from under which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubablativeCase, namely -L´aš [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3490 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuballativeCase

SuballativeCase; admitted name
SuballativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuballativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3491

Identifier: SuballativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SuballativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is under the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuballativeCase, namely -L´aši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3491 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubessiveCase

SubessiveCase; admitted name
SubessiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubessiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3492

Identifier: SubessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SubessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location under which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'under' or 'beneath'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubessiveCase, namely -L´ [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3492 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SublativeCase

SublativeCase; admitted name
SublativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SublativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3495

Identifier: SublativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: In certain languages (notably, languages of the Finno-Urgic family), a declensional case having the same denotation as in English the use of the contruction "from below" before a substantive. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 203-204] Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SublativeCase, namely -L´ak [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 203-204; Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3495 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubterminativeCase

SubterminativeCase; admitted name
SubterminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubterminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3499

Identifier: SubterminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SubterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region under the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region under'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubterminativeCase, namely -L´akana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3499 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubtranslativeCase

SubtranslativeCase; admitted name
SubtranslativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubtranslativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3500

Identifier: SubtranslativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SubtranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory underneath the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region underneath'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SubtranslativeCase, namely -L´aXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3500 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperablativeCase

SuperablativeCase; admitted name
SuperablativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperablativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3502

Identifier: SuperablativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: Superablative expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is at the location from over which another referent is moving. It has the meaning 'from over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperablativeCase, namely -t:iš. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t:-iš' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3502 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperallativeCase

SuperallativeCase; admitted name
SuperallativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperallativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3503

Identifier: SuperallativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SuperallativeCase expresses that something is moving toward the region that is above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'towards the region that is over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperallativeCase, namely -t:iši [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3503 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperessiveCase

SuperessiveCase; admitted name
SuperessiveCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperessiveCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3504

Identifier: SuperessiveCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SuperessiveCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location on which another referent exists. It has the meaning of 'on' or 'upon'. [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207] Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperessiveCase, namely -t. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 207; Kibrik 1998: 470-471]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3504 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperlativeCase

SuperlativeCase; admitted name
SuperlativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperlativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3506

Identifier: SuperlativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SuperlativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun it marks is the location onto which another referent is moving. It has the meaning of 'onto'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperlativeCase, namely -t:ik. He gives the example 'aInš-li-t:-ik' ('aIns' = 'apple'). [Kibrik 1998: 470-471] Unfortunate name clash with 'Superlative' as a property of adjectives.
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470-471]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3506 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperterminativeCase

SuperterminativeCase; admitted name
SuperterminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperterminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3507

Identifier: SuperterminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SuperterminativeCase expresses the notion of something moving into the region over the referent of the noun it marks, but not through that region. It has the meaning 'into the region over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SuperterminativeCase, namely -t:ikana [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3507 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SupertranslativeCase

SupertranslativeCase; admitted name
SupertranslativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SupertranslativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3508

Identifier: SupertranslativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: SupertranslativeCase expresses the notion of something moving along a trajectory above the referent of the noun it marks. It has the meaning 'along the region over'. Kibrik says that Archi (aqc) possesses a nominal spatial form expressing SupertranslativeCase, namely -t:iXut [Kibrik 1998: 470].
Source: [Kibrik 1998: 470]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3508 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TerminativeCase

TerminativeCase; admitted name
TerminativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TerminativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3522

Identifier: TerminativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: Cases expressing spatial relations (also semantic) can be grouped into four broad directional classes: cases expressing location ('at'), goal ('to'), source ('from'), and path ('through, along'). The basic terms for these are: locative, allative, ablative, and perlative. Additionally, the label terminative is used for a movement that goes all the way to its endpoint, and orientative - for a movement that goes only in the direction of its goal. [Kibort 2008b]
Source: [Kibort 2008b]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3522 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TranslativeCase

TranslativeCase; admitted name
TranslativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TranslativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3534

Identifier: TranslativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: TranslativeCase expresses that the referent of the noun, or the quality of the adjective, that it marks is the result of a process of change [Lyons 1968: 299-301; Sebeok 1946: 17; Hakulinen 1961: 70]. X along, across Y.
Source: [Lyons 1968: 299-301; Sebeok 1946: 17; Hakulinen 1961: 70]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3534 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VocativeCase

VocativeCase; admitted name
VocativeCase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VocativeCase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3550

Identifier: VocativeCase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: CaseProperty

Definition: VocativeCase marks a noun whose referent is being addressed [Crystal 1980: 377; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 251; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 228].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 377; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 251; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 228]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CaseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3550 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EvaluativeProperty

EvaluativeProperty; admitted name
EvaluativeProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvaluativeProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3184

Identifier: EvaluativeProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: A term used in semantics for a type of modality where propositions express the speaker’s attitude (e.g. surprise, regret) towards what is being said. [Crystal 2003: 168]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 168]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3184 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PejorativeEvaluative

PejorativeEvaluative; admitted name
PejorativeEvaluative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PejorativeEvaluative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3380

Identifier: PejorativeEvaluative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvaluativeProperty

Definition: An evaluative property of a noun that indicates the speaker regards the person or object being referred to with distaste, contempt, or displeasure [Valentine 2001: 190-193].
Source: [Valentine 2001: 190-193]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvaluativeProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3380 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PreferredEvaluative

PreferredEvaluative; admitted name
PreferredEvaluative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PreferredEvaluative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3416

Identifier: PreferredEvaluative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvaluativeProperty

Definition: An evaluative property of a noun that indicates the speaker regards the person or object being referred to with favor or admiration.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvaluativeProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3416 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EvidentialityProperty

EvidentialityProperty; admitted name
EvidentialityProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3185

Identifier: EvidentialityProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Evidentiality denotes the basis that the speaker has for claiming that the event has occurred (or is going to take place). Appear to show a greater number of distinctions in the realis mood (especially in the past tense) than the irrealis mood. [Bhat 1999: 63-64, 70]
Source: [Bhat 1999: 63-64, 70]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3185 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AssumptiveEvidentiality

AssumptiveEvidentiality; admitted name
AssumptiveEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AssumptiveEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3091

Identifier: AssumptiveEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: One of the three types of judgment common in languages, that indicates inference from what is generally known. English has the contrast between Deductive and Assumptive, as shown in: 'John must be in his office', 'John'll be in his office'. Schlichter comments that the speaker believes the case to be true…in the case of the Assumptive ‘because of his experience with similar situations, regular patterns, or repeated circumstances common in human life’. It is used when the speaker has prior knowledge about the state of things or about habitual or general 'behavior patterns', but 'only when no information about the state or event is being or has been received'. In that sense it is the negative member of the evidential system, used when no ready evidence is available. [Palmer 2001: 24-25; 30; 51]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 24-25; 30; 51]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3091 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AuditoryEvidentiality

AuditoryEvidentiality; admitted name
AuditoryEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AuditoryEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3093

Identifier: AuditoryEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: AuditoryEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through direct auditory experience; they heard it. This does not include spoken reported accounts, but only direct sensory evidence, such as the situation of 'hearing a tree fall' [Palmer 2001: 38].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 38]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3093 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DeductiveEvidentiality

DeductiveEvidentiality; admitted name
DeductiveEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeductiveEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3150

Identifier: DeductiveEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: DeductiveEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through a sound inference procedure. [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 6-8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3150 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DirectEvidentiality

DirectEvidentiality; admitted name
DirectEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3164

Identifier: DirectEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: DirectEvidential, also called sensory, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression by having direct sensory experience of some situation; this does not include hearing about it from someone else [Palmer 2001: 35-36].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 35-36]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3164 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FolkloreEvidentiality

FolkloreEvidentiality; admitted name
FolkloreEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FolkloreEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3202

Identifier: FolkloreEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: FolkloreEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through legend, folklore or some other established tradition [Palmer 2001: 40].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 40]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3202 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HearsayEvidentiality

HearsayEvidentiality; admitted name
HearsayEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HearsayEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3233

Identifier: HearsayEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: HearsayEvidentiality, also called third hand, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from a source generally considered less reliable than with a SecondHandEvidential [Palmer 2001: 40].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 40]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3233 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IndirectEvidentiality

IndirectEvidentiality; admitted name
IndirectEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IndirectEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3256

Identifier: IndirectEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: IndirectEvidentiality, also called reported, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from a source other than by experiencing the situation directly [Palmer 2001: 40].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 40]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3256 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InferentialEvidentiality

InferentialEvidentiality; admitted name
InferentialEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InferentialEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3258

Identifier: InferentialEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: InferentialEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through some kind of internal inference procedure, e.g., deduction, abduction, induction [Palmer 2001: 6-8].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 6-8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3258 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OtherSourceEvidentiality

OtherSourceEvidentiality; admitted name
OtherSourceEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OtherSourceEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3367

Identifier: OtherSourceEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: An indication that the source of information is someone other than the speaker. [Aikhenvald 2006: 106]
Source: [Aikhenvald 2006: 106]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3367 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OtherThanVisualEvidentiality

OtherThanVisualEvidentiality; admitted name
OtherThanVisualEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OtherThanVisualEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3368

Identifier: OtherThanVisualEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: OtherThanVisualEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression directly in a way other than through visual experience; they heard it, smelled it, tasted it, etc. [Palmer 2001: 36, 57].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 36, 57]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3368 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SecondHandEvidentiality

SecondHandEvidentiality; admitted name
SecondHandEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SecondHandEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3462

Identifier: SecondHandEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: SecondHandEvidentiality, also called the quotative, encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression from communicating with someone else [Palmer 2001: 40].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 40]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3462 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VisualEvidentiality

VisualEvidentiality; admitted name
VisualEvidentiality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VisualEvidentiality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3549

Identifier: VisualEvidentiality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: EvidentialityProperty

Definition: VisualEvidentiality encodes the fact that the speaker came to believe the content of the expression through direct visual experience; they saw it [Palmer 2001: 57].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 57]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EvidentialityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3549 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ForceProperty

ForceProperty; admitted name
ForceProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3204

Identifier: ForceProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: ForceProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the speech act associated with a proposition. Among the traditionally defined values are Declarative, Imperative and Interrogative. Force is here distinguished from Mood, but there is a close association of Mood with Force values, e.g. between IndicativeMood and DeclarativeForce.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3204 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ActionalForce

ActionalForce; admitted name
ActionalForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ActionalForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3063

Identifier: ActionalForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: ActionalForce indicates that the speaker or hearer is to undertake some action. Actional force subsumes Imperative, Commissive and Hortatory force.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3063 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CommissiveForce

CommissiveForce; admitted name
CommissiveForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CommissiveForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3120

Identifier: CommissiveForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: CommisiveForce indicates that the speaker promises or threatens to perform some action [Palmer 2001: 10, 72].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 10, 72]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3120 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DeclarativeForce

DeclarativeForce; admitted name
DeclarativeForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeclarativeForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3149

Identifier: DeclarativeForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: Declarative force marks an unqualified assertion. This form is generally unmarked for modality, and thus may also be seen as Realis, while modal forms are Irrealis. In English, the Declarative is marked by the absence of a modal verb, although it will be marked for the other verbal categories, tense and aspect. [Palmer 2001: 64]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 64]

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to imperative, interrogative, etc. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of statements, e.g. 'the man is walking'. The term 'indicative' is also sometimes used in this sense. [Crystal 2003: 124]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 124]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3149 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HortatoryForce

HortatoryForce; admitted name
HortatoryForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HortatoryForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3239

Identifier: HortatoryForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: A term sometimes used in the grammatical analysis of verbs, to refer to a type of modal meaning in which an exhortation is made. An example of a hortative usage ('a hortative') is the 'let us' construction in English ('let us pray'). [Crystal 2008: 232]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 232]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3239 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ImperativeForce

ImperativeForce; admitted name
ImperativeForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImperativeForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3245

Identifier: ImperativeForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to indicative, interrogative, etc. An imperative usage (‘an imperative’) refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of commands, e.g. 'Go away!' [Crystal 2008: 23]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3245 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InformationalForce

InformationalForce; admitted name
InformationalForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InformationalForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3261

Identifier: InformationalForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: InformationalForce indicates that the hearer is to relate to the informational content of what is expressed. Informational force subsumes Declarative, Speculative and Interrogative force.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3261 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterrogativeForce

InterrogativeForce; admitted name
InterrogativeForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterrogativeForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3270

Identifier: InterrogativeForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of sentence types, and usually seen in contrast to declarative. It refers to verb forms or sentence/clause types typically used in the expression of questions, e.g. the inverted order of 'is he coming?' or the use of an interrogative word (or simple ‘interrogative’), often subclassified as interrogative adjectives (e.g. which), adverbs (e.g. why) and pronouns (e.g. who). [Crystal 2008: 245]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 245]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3270 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


JussiveForce

JussiveForce; admitted name
JussiveForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/JussiveForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3283

Identifier: JussiveForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: The jussive has syntactic force and is directive in that it signals a speaker's command, permission, or agreement that the proposition expressed by his or her utterance be brought about. The jussive is typically applicable in the first and third person. [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113, Schade 2005: 52]
Source: [Chung and Timberlake 1985: 247; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 110; Palmer 1986: 10, 24, 39-40, 96, 110, 113, Schade 2005: 52]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3283 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SpeculativeForce

SpeculativeForce; admitted name
SpeculativeForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SpeculativeForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3482

Identifier: SpeculativeForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: SpeculativeForce indicates that the speaker considers, or 'entertains', the content of the expression. That is, it is in the realm of possibility, though the speaker does not necessarilty believe it. [Palmer 2001: 6-8, 25]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 6-8, 25]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3482 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VolitiveForce

VolitiveForce; admitted name
VolitiveForce; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VolitiveForce; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3555

Identifier: VolitiveForce   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ForceProperty

Definition: VolitiveForce indicates that the speaker is willing to perform some action [Palmer 2001: 76].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 76]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ForceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3555 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GenderProperty

GenderProperty; admitted name
GenderProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3217

Identifier: GenderProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: GenderProperty is the class of properties that are assigned to nouns on the basis of their inherent properties by an AssignmentSystem and required by the syntax to appear on the target in an AgreementSystem. Gender may but need not be assigned on the basis of sex [Corbett 1991].
Source: [Corbett 1991]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3217 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AnimateGender

AnimateGender; admitted name
AnimateGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AnimateGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3077

Identifier: AnimateGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A grammatical gender property assigned to a class of nouns with animate denotation. In a given language it may include larger or smaller numbers of nouns which do not meet this semantic criterion. The animate gender may occur in a two-gender system, with the other gender being labeled inanimate. However, the animate gender may also occur in larger inventories (i.e. greater than two values). Examples of these larger systems are found in Bantu languages (where nouns denoting humans are included in the animate gender) and in languages of Daghestan (where the animate gender is typically for non-human animates) [Corbett 1991: 20-32].
Source: [Corbett 1991: 20-32]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3077 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ArabicNumeralGender

ArabicNumeralGender; admitted name
ArabicNumeralGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ArabicNumeralGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3086

Identifier: ArabicNumeralGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A labeling convention for gender categories. Arabic numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages; If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Arabic numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. For instance, in one language the gender to which nouns with human denotation are assigned might be called 'human', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Arabic numerical label such as '1'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
Source: [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3086 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FeminineGender

FeminineGender; admitted name
FeminineGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FeminineGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3197

Identifier: FeminineGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned if 1) they inherently denote females. Additionally, but not necessarily, nouns may be assigned this value if: 2) their formal properties (morphological or phonological) lead them to be assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns within the language that have female denotation. 3) they are arbitrarily assigned to the same agreement pattern as other nouns in the language that have female denotation. [Corbett 1991]
Source: [Corbett 1991]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3197 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HumanGender

HumanGender; admitted name
HumanGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HumanGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3240

Identifier: HumanGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A grammatical category used for analysis of word-classes displaying such contrasts as masculine/feminine/neuter, animate/inanimate, etc. It is also important to distinguish natural gender, items referring to the sex of real-world entities, and grammatical gender, which does not always correspond to sex, but which has an important role in signaling grammatical relations between words in a sentence. [Crystal 1985: 133]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 133]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3240 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InanimateGender

InanimateGender; admitted name
InanimateGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InanimateGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3250

Identifier: InanimateGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A grammatical gender property such that membership in the inanimate grammatical class is largely based on meaning, in that non-living things, such as objects of manufacture and natural 'non-living' things are included in it. For example, one of the two grammatical genders, or noun classes, of Nishnaabemwin, the other being animate [Valentine 2001: 114].
Source: [Valentine 2001: 114]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3250 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MasculineGender

MasculineGender; admitted name
MasculineGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MasculineGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3312

Identifier: MasculineGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned based on semantic or formal criteria. In semantic gender systems, nouns belonging to the masculine gender typically denote male humans as well as nouns meeting certain physical criteria. Some gender systems differentiate masculine nouns from all other nouns (e.g. masculine/other or male human/other), while others differentiate masculine, feminine and neuter nouns or several different gender classes. [Corbett 1991: 30]
Source: [Corbett 1991: 30]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3312 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NeuterGender

NeuterGender; admitted name
NeuterGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NeuterGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3336

Identifier: NeuterGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A gender property established on the basis of agreement, to which nouns may be assigned, either by a semantic rule, if they belong to the semantic residue of the assignment system, or by a formal rule, if assignment depends on inflectional class membership. Typically, this means that the neuter gender may cover some inanimates and possibly some portion of lower order animates. Note: Although in familiar Indo-European languages the term neuter gender may be part of a system with three or less values, it can be used for systems containing more than three gender values (e.g. Bininj Gunwok). [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
Source: [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3336 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RomanNumeralGender

RomanNumeralGender; admitted name
RomanNumeralGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RomanNumeralGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3459

Identifier: RomanNumeralGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: A convention for labeling gender values. Roman numerals are often used for languages for which there is a descriptive tradition involving use of the term 'noun class' instead of 'gender', in particular in languages of the Caucasus or Bantu languages, and are particularly useful where the number of genders is large.If the 'noun classes' are involved in agreement systems, they are gender systems. Roman numerals may also be used in instances where another label is possible. In one language the gender to which nouns with male rational denotation are assigned might be called 'masculine', whereas in another language nouns with a similar denotation may be assigned to a gender with an arbitrary Roman numerical label such as 'I'. [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]
Source: [Kibort and Corbett 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3459 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VegetableGender

VegetableGender; admitted name
VegetableGender; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VegetableGender; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3541

Identifier: VegetableGender   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: GenderProperty

Definition: Vegetable gender refers to inanimates and exists in some four-way gender systems, e.g., masculine, feminine, neuter, and vegetable as in Bininj Gun-wok [Evans 2003: 202].
Source: [Evans 2003: 202]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GenderProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3541 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ModalityProperty

ModalityProperty; admitted name
ModalityProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3321

Identifier: ModalityProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: ModalityProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the status of the proposition itself, and not of the event to which the proposition refers, cf. AspectProperty. As a grammatical property, it represents those dimensions in the domains of knowledge (epistemic modality), social relations (deontic modality) and ability (abilitative modality), and possibly others. [Palmer 2001: 1, 7-10]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 1, 7-10]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3321 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AbilitativeModality

AbilitativeModality; admitted name
AbilitativeModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbilitativeModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3056

Identifier: AbilitativeModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: AbilitativeModality indicates the capacity of an agent to perform some action, regardless of type or condition. This is also known as the abilitive.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3056 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ConditionalModality

ConditionalModality; admitted name
ConditionalModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ConditionalModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3130

Identifier: ConditionalModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: When describing verbs, this is a term used to indicate expression of an unreal or unfulfilled condition. Some languages use grammatical markers or verb forms to separate real and unreal conditions. [Brown and Miller 1999: 425]
Source: [Brown and Miller 1999: 425]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3130 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality

ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality; admitted name
ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3131

Identifier: ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates ability of an agent to perform some action, requiring the presence of conditions external to the agent [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 76].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 76]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3131 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DeonticModality

DeonticModality; admitted name
DeonticModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeonticModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3155

Identifier: DeonticModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: Deontic modality is concerned with the necessity or possibility of acts performed by morally responsible agents and is thus associated with the social functions of permission and obligation. Deontic modality focuses on the notions of obligation and permission. It is found in directives that grant permission (‘you may go now’) or impose obligations (‘eat your vegetables!’), as well as in statements that report deontic conditions. Deontic modality fails to distinguish subcategories that are expressed inflectionally from lexical or periphrastic expressions of obligation or permission. Deontic modality as traditionally understood excludes certain semantically related notions such as ability and desire that have linguistic expression similar to that of permission and obligation. [Bybee and Fleischman 1995: 4-5]
Source: [Bybee and Fleischman 1995: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3155 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EpistemicNecessityModality

EpistemicNecessityModality; admitted name
EpistemicNecessityModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EpistemicNecessityModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3180

Identifier: EpistemicNecessityModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: EpistemicNecessityModality indicates that the expressed proposition is known to be true. Also known as CategoricalModality [Palmer 2001: 37, 68-69].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 37, 68-69]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3180 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EpistemicPossibilityModality

EpistemicPossibilityModality; admitted name
EpistemicPossibilityModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EpistemicPossibilityModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3181

Identifier: EpistemicPossibilityModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: EpistemicPossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is not known not to be true.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3181 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MentalAbilitiveModality

MentalAbilitiveModality; admitted name
MentalAbilitiveModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MentalAbilitiveModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3313

Identifier: MentalAbilitiveModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: MentalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the capacity to perform some mental action [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3313 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NecessityModality

NecessityModality; admitted name
NecessityModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessityModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3333

Identifier: NecessityModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: NecessityModality indicates that the described state of affairs is necessary [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because of a requirement on the part of an agent [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 89-90; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3333 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ObligativeModality

ObligativeModality; admitted name
ObligativeModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObligativeModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3356

Identifier: ObligativeModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: ObligativeModality indicates that an agent is required to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; Palmer 2001: 71]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3356 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PermissiveModality

PermissiveModality; admitted name
PermissiveModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PermissiveModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3384

Identifier: PermissiveModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: PermissiveModality indicates that an agent has permission to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Palmer 2001: 10, 71].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 10, 71]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3384 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PhysicalAbilitiveModality

PhysicalAbilitiveModality; admitted name
PhysicalAbilitiveModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhysicalAbilitiveModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3394

Identifier: PhysicalAbilitiveModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: PhysicalAbilitiveModality indicates that an agent has the physical capacity to perform some action. [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 192; Palmer 2001: 77]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3394 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PossibilityModality

PossibilityModality; admitted name
PossibilityModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PossibilityModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3408

Identifier: PossibilityModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: PossibilityModality indicates that the designated state of affairs is possible [Palmer 2001: 89-90], either directly, or because an agent has the ability or permission to carry it out [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177].
Source: [Palmer 2001: 89-90; Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 177; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3408 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


WeakObligativeModality

WeakObligativeModality; admitted name
WeakObligativeModality; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WeakObligativeModality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3557

Identifier: WeakObligativeModality   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: ModalityProperty

Definition: WeakObligativeModality indicates that an agent is under a moral obligation to perform the action expressed by the predicate [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 186-187].
Source: [Bybee, Perkins and Pagliuca 1994: 186-187]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3557 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NumberProperty

NumberProperty; admitted name
NumberProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3351

Identifier: NumberProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: NumberProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of quantity. It is often found on nouns, pronouns, and verbs and expresses count distinctions--such as 'one' or 'more than one'. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or Pronoun. [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3351 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DualNumber

DualNumber; admitted name
DualNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DualNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3173

Identifier: DualNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: The dual quantifies the denotation of the nominal element by specifying that there are exactly 'two' (as in Upper Sorbian, see [Corbett 2000: 20] for examples and discussion. Additionally, but not necessarily, this value may be assigned on the basis of the formal properties of the nominal element (as in dualia tantum, e.g. mangautek 'scissors' in the Yukon dialect of Central Alaskan Yupik; [Jacobson 1984: 226]). The use of the dual varies across languages which have this value. In some languages, dual may be used to refer to any two entities, but in others it must refer to a natural pair such as eyes, and still in others it must refer to two items unless they are a natural pair [Corbett 2000]. [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]
Source: [Corbett 2000: 20; Jacobson 1984: 226; Corbett 2000; Kibort and Corbett 2008b]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3173 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GeneralNumber

GeneralNumber; admitted name
GeneralNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneralNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3218

Identifier: GeneralNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: In some languages for which number is less dominant, the meaning of the noun can be expressed without reference to number. Nouns with this marking are designated as outside of the number system, as they are noncommittal as to the number of the noun that they mark. [Corbett 2000: 9-10]
Source: [Corbett 2000: 9-10]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3218 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GreaterPaucalNumber

GreaterPaucalNumber; admitted name
GreaterPaucalNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GreaterPaucalNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3229

Identifier: GreaterPaucalNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: GreaterPaucal is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that it specifies that there are a small number of distinct entities, greater than paucalNumber but less than pluralNumber (semantically similar to 'several' in English).
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3229 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GreaterPluralNumber

GreaterPluralNumber; admitted name
GreaterPluralNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GreaterPluralNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3230

Identifier: GreaterPluralNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: GreaterPlural is a number property that expresses (a) the fact that there is an excessive number of events or entities denoted by the noun or nominal element, or (b) the fact that the noun or nominal denotes all possible instances. [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]
Source: [Kibort and Corbett 2008b]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3230 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MultalNumber

MultalNumber; admitted name
MultalNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MultalNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3327

Identifier: MultalNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: Multal is a number property that refers to a large number of individuals.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3327 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PaucalNumber

PaucalNumber; admitted name
PaucalNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PaucalNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3379

Identifier: PaucalNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: A category of number denoting the concept 'a few', more than two and usually less than seven, but the exact number varies widely according to context. Prototypically, it refers to a class of three to five individuals and is always restricted to humans. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 166; Corbett 2000: 23]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 166; Corbett 2000: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3379 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PluralNumber

PluralNumber; admitted name
PluralNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PluralNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3398

Identifier: PluralNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: PluralNumber is a number property that quantifies the denotation of the nominal element so that: 1) it specifies that there are more than one. In this English example below, plural is shown by both the noun and the verb in (2): (1) my dog watches television (2) my dogs watch television [Corbett 2000: 5] 2) additionally, but not necessarily, pluralNumber may be assigned on the basis of formal properties (e.g. pluralia tantum, or measles / *measle). 3) if pluralNumber functions as generalNumber, it may specify a lack of commitment with regard to quantification ([Corbett 2000: 17] notes this system does not exist in pure form, that is, no language employs it as the normal case). Some Cushitic languages, generalNumber can be the same as singularNumber for some nouns, but the same as pluralNumber for other nouns. For example, in Arbore (arv), generalNumber may contrast with the singular in the absence of a distinct plural form: Ln Singular Ln tiis-in 'a maize cob' Ln lasa-n 'a loaf' nebel-in 'a cock ostrich' ln General ln tíise 'maize cob(s)' ln lássa 'bread' ln nebel 'ostrich(es)' ln [Corbett 2000: 17-18]
Source: [Corbett 2000: 5; Corbett 2000: 17; Corbett 2000: 17-18; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3398 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SingularNumber

SingularNumber; admitted name
SingularNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SingularNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3479

Identifier: SingularNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: Singular refers to one member of a designated class [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 210].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 245; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 210]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3479 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TrialNumber

TrialNumber; admitted name
TrialNumber; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TrialNumber; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3535

Identifier: TrialNumber   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: NumberProperty

Definition: The trial is for referring to three distinct real world entities. [Corbett 2000: 21]
Source: [Corbett 2000: 21]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumberProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3535 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PersonProperty

PersonProperty; admitted name
PersonProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3385

Identifier: PersonProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: PersonProperty is the class of properties with a deictic dimension, interpreted relative to the speaker, encoding the participants in a speech situation. Usually a three-way contrast is found: firstPerson (speaker), secondPerson (addressee), and thirdPerson (neither speaker nor addressee). Other distinctions within this feature include: inclusive/exclusive and proximative/obviative. [Crystal 1997: 285-286]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285-286]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3385 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FirstPerson

FirstPerson; admitted name
FirstPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3198

Identifier: FirstPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: First is a person property that refers minimally to the speaker. It may also refer to the speaker combined with either the addressee or the non-participant or both, allowing for the following subdivisions: a) first person b) first person inclusive c) first person exclusive [Cysouw 2003].
Source: [Cysouw 2003]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3198 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FirstPersonExclusive

FirstPersonExclusive; admitted name
FirstPersonExclusive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstPersonExclusive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3199

Identifier: FirstPersonExclusive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: No definition yet
Source: No source yet

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3199 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FirstPersonInclusive

FirstPersonInclusive; admitted name
FirstPersonInclusive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FirstPersonInclusive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3200

Identifier: FirstPersonInclusive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: No definition yet
Source: No source yet

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3200 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SecondPerson

SecondPerson; admitted name
SecondPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SecondPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3464

Identifier: SecondPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: SecondPerson is a person property that refers minimally to the addressee [Crystal 1997: 285; Cysouw 2003: 75].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285; Cysouw 2003: 75]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3464 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ThirdPerson

ThirdPerson; admitted name
ThirdPerson; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdPerson; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3526

Identifier: ThirdPerson   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: Third Person is a person property that refers to the non-participant (other than the speaker and the addressee) [Crystal 1997: 285].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 285]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3526 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ThirdPersonObviative

ThirdPersonObviative; admitted name
ThirdPersonObviative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdPersonObviative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3527

Identifier: ThirdPersonObviative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: ThirdPersonObviative is a person property that refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way further removed from the speaker than other non-particpants. Contrasts with ThirdPersonProximative. [Kibort 2008a]
Source: [Kibort 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3527 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ThirdPersonProximative

ThirdPersonProximative; admitted name
ThirdPersonProximative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ThirdPersonProximative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3528

Identifier: ThirdPersonProximative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PersonProperty

Definition: Refers to one or more non-participants that are in some way distinct/closer to the speaker than other non-participants. Third person proximative contrasts with third person obviative. Often called 'Third Person Proximate' or '4th person'. [Kibort 2008a]
Source: [Kibort 2008a]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3528 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PolarityProperty

PolarityProperty; admitted name
PolarityProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PolarityProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3403

Identifier: PolarityProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: The property concerned with encoding the system of positive/negative contrastivity found in a language. The distinction between 'positive' and 'negative polarity' may be expressed syntactically, morphologically or lexically. [Crystal 1997: 297]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 297]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3403 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NegativePolarity

NegativePolarity; admitted name
NegativePolarity; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NegativePolarity; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3335

Identifier: NegativePolarity   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PolarityProperty

Definition: A construction that expresses the contradiction of some or all of a proposition [Crystal 1980: 257]. Note: this value is not to be confused with the notion "Negative Polarity Item", which is an expression that occurs in the scope of Negation (i.e. Negative Polarity).
Source: [Crystal 1980: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PolarityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3335 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PositivePolarity

PositivePolarity; admitted name
PositivePolarity; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PositivePolarity; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3405

Identifier: PositivePolarity   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: PolarityProperty

Definition: In general, positive polarity refers to an assertion that contains no marker of negation [Crystal 1980: 299].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 299]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PolarityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3405 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SizeProperty

SizeProperty; admitted name
SizeProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SizeProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3480

Identifier: SizeProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: SizeProperty is a physical property with two values: large and small. Languages apparently do not encode a middle value of medium, at least not in the grammar. The marking of large size is traditionally called the augmentativem that for small size the diminutive. [Frawley 1992: 126]
Source: [Frawley 1992: 126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3480 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AugmentativeSize

AugmentativeSize; admitted name
AugmentativeSize; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AugmentativeSize; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3094

Identifier: AugmentativeSize   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: SizeProperty

Definition: A special form of a noun that signals that the object being referred to is large relative to the usual size of such an object [Crystal 1980: 34].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 34]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SizeProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3094 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DiminuativeSize

DiminuativeSize; admitted name
DiminuativeSize; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DiminuativeSize; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3163

Identifier: DiminuativeSize   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: SizeProperty

Definition: A special form of a noun that signals that the object being referred to is small relative to the usual size of such an object. In some cases it may be used as a term of endearment [Crystal 1980: 116].
Source: [Crystal 1980: 116]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SizeProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3163 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VoiceProperty

VoiceProperty; admitted name
VoiceProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3551

Identifier: VoiceProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: VoiceProperty is the class of properties that concern the grammatical encoding of the relationship between the verb and the nominals in a subject-predicate configuration. It selects a grammatically prominent syntactic constituent--subject--from the underlying semantic functions. In accusative language, the basic strategy is to select an agent as a subject [Shibatani 1988: 3]. It can be said that all voice systems mark the affectedness/nonaffectedness of sentential subjects [Klaiman 1988: 30].
Source: [Shibatani 1988: 3; Klaiman 1988: 30]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosyntacticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3551 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice

AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; admitted name
AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3058

Identifier: AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A term used by some Mayanists to refer to an antipassive in which the patient or logical object is supressed or overtly absent. [Klaiman 1991: 232] Dayley states that the absolutive antipassive is used when the patient is unknown or irrelevant, or when the speaker does not wish to mention the patient, or to describe a transitive activity typically performed by some agent. The absolutive antipassive requires a non-specific implied patient, and no specific patient is ever semantically recoverable from the speech context. Only the absolutive antipassive has (as the name implies) absolutive function such that a transitive activity may be discussed without mention of the patient. [Dayley 1985: 345-350] This type of antipassive with an obligatorily unidentified object is also found in Mam, another Mayan language. [Cooreman 1994: 52-53]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 232; Dayley 1985: 345-350; Cooreman 1994: 52-53; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3058 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ActiveVoice

ActiveVoice; admitted name
ActiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ActiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3064

Identifier: ActiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Associated with transitivity, when the action is performed by an agent (subject) on another participant (object) [McIntosh 1984: 108]. It refers to the category of underived verb forms associated with the basic diathesis [Shibatani 1995: 7].
Source: [McIntosh 1984: 108; Shibatani 1995: 7]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3064 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AgentDeletionPassiveVoice

AgentDeletionPassiveVoice; admitted name
AgentDeletionPassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AgentDeletionPassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3073

Identifier: AgentDeletionPassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: The object of the active retains its old case-marking in the passive, the subject of the active cannot appear in the passive clause, and the passive tends to be semantically active [Givon 1988: 419].
Source: [Givon 1988: 419]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3073 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AntiCausativeVoice

AntiCausativeVoice; admitted name
AntiCausativeVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AntiCausativeVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3080

Identifier: AntiCausativeVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: An intransitive verb is derived from a basically transitive one with the direct object of the transitive verb corresponding to the subject of the intransitive [Siewierska 1988: 267].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 267]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3080 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AntiPassiveVoice

AntiPassiveVoice; admitted name
AntiPassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AntiPassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3081

Identifier: AntiPassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: In the antipassive construction, the patient-like argument is either suppressed (left implicit) or realized as an oblique complement, rather than as a direct object as would be the case in the basic two-place predicate transitive construction. The antipassive voice is most commonly found in ergative languages. In this case, the direct object, which is in the absolutive case in the transitive construction, is no longer marked as absolutive, but is marked as oblique or is supressed entirely. The agent-like argument, marked as ergative in a typical transitive construction, is instead marked as absolutive, making it appear like the agent of an intransitive construction. [Polinsky 2008]
Source: [Polinsky 2008]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3081 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ApplicativeVoice

ApplicativeVoice; admitted name
ApplicativeVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ApplicativeVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3084

Identifier: ApplicativeVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: The applicative voice is a grammatical voice which promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) patient argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb. Applicatives have a degree of overlap with causatives, and in some languages are realized identically; this isomorphism can be found in Kinyarwanda [Kimenyi 1980: 164], Yagua, Malay, and Dyirbal [Croft 1990: 242]. While differing from true applicatives, a similar construction known as dative shifting occurs in other languages, including English. Two subtle differences between applicative and dative-shift constructions are: (1) applicatives involve some marking on the verb whereas dative-shift constructions do not; and (2) dative-shift constructions typically allow only recipients and benefactives to become direct objects whereas applicative constructions normally advance instruments and perhaps other obliques. [Payne 1997: 186-192]
Source: [Kimenyi 1980: 164; Croft 1990: 242; Payne 1997: 186-192; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3084 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CausativeVoice

CausativeVoice; admitted name
CausativeVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CausativeVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3106

Identifier: CausativeVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A construction can be classified as a morphological causative when there is specific morphological encoding of causativity within the verb. Moreover, a causative is associated with an additional core argument, a causer or causal agent, added to the set of core arguments assigned by the corresponding noncausative verb. [Klaiman 1991: 51]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 51]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3106 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DeponentMiddleVoice

DeponentMiddleVoice; admitted name
DeponentMiddleVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DeponentMiddleVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3156

Identifier: DeponentMiddleVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Action denotes physical/mental disposition of subject. [Siewierska 1988: 257]
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3156 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DirectVoice

DirectVoice; admitted name
DirectVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DirectVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3165

Identifier: DirectVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Direct voice signals that the action proceeds in an ontologically salient way, i.e. that salience is assigned to nominals based on their referent's relative real-world capacities to control situations. [Klaiman 1991: 32]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 32]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3165 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


FocusAntipassiveVoice

FocusAntipassiveVoice; admitted name
FocusAntipassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/FocusAntipassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3201

Identifier: FocusAntipassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. Topic salience is available for assignment to various arguments, including the patient, but Focus salience is always assigned to agent, and is therefore inaccessible to the patient or any other nominal. [Klaiman 1991: 236] Dayley describes the focus antipassive as a rearranging voice whose primary function is to indicate that the agent of a transitive sentence is highlighted or in focus. The focus antipassive is used when the agent is in contrastive focus or highly emphatic, when the agent is questioned, and when the agent is relativized. [Dayley 1985: 348]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 236; Dayley 1985: 348]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3201 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ImpersonalPassiveVoice

ImpersonalPassiveVoice; admitted name
ImpersonalPassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ImpersonalPassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3247

Identifier: ImpersonalPassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A Passive that alters the mapping of a nominal to the Subject relation in a basic intransitive structure [Klaiman 1991: 23].
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3247 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice

IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice; admitted name
IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3252

Identifier: IncorporatingAntipassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Blocks the patient or logical object (basic absolutive) nominal from being assigned Focus salience. There is no explicit case marking on the patient, and the patient is invariably nonreferential. This correlates with the patient's morphosyntactic downgrading, whereby it becomes insusceptible to any informational salience assignment. [Klaiman 1991: 232-236]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 232-236]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3252 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InverseVoice

InverseVoice; admitted name
InverseVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InverseVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3279

Identifier: InverseVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Signals when actions proceed from ontologically less salient to more salient participants. [Klaiman 1991: 32]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 32]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3279 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LocativePassiveVoice

LocativePassiveVoice; admitted name
LocativePassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LocativePassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3307

Identifier: LocativePassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: An oblique locative nominal assumes the subject relation [Klaiman 1991: 17].
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 17]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3307 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NecessitativePassiveVoice

NecessitativePassiveVoice; admitted name
NecessitativePassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NecessitativePassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3332

Identifier: NecessitativePassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A passive in Irish in which the preposition "with" is used, and a semantic meaning of necessity is added [Noonan 1994: 280].
Source: [Noonan 1994: 280]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3332 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice

NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; admitted name
NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3342

Identifier: NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: An Antipassive in which the patient or logical object is not supressed, as is the case in the Absolutive Antipassive, but rather, is overtly downgraded. Some Mayanists distinguish between two types of Non Absolutive Antipassives: the Focus Antipassive and the Incorporating Antipassive. [Klaiman 1991: 232]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 232]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3342 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NonPromotionalInverseVoice

NonPromotionalInverseVoice; admitted name
NonPromotionalInverseVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NonPromotionalInverseVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3346

Identifier: NonPromotionalInverseVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Involves demotion of the non-topical obviate-agent from subjecthood [Givon 1994: 24].
Source: [Givon 1994: 24]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3346 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NucleonicMiddleVoice

NucleonicMiddleVoice; admitted name
NucleonicMiddleVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NucleonicMiddleVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3350

Identifier: NucleonicMiddleVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Object of action belongs to. Moves into, or moves from sphere of subject [Siewierska 1988: 257].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3350 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ObliquePassiveVoice

ObliquePassiveVoice; admitted name
ObliquePassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ObliquePassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3358

Identifier: ObliquePassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A Passive in which a basic Oblique nominal assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration. Can include locative passives, benefactive passives and instrumental passives. [Klaiman 1991: 23]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3358 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PassiveVoice

PassiveVoice; admitted name
PassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3375

Identifier: PassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Associated with actions performed on the subject by an unspecified agent [McIntosh 1984: 108]. Refers to the category of verb forms, typically identifies with a specific morphological marking, that encode the derived diatheses in which the agent role is not linked with a subject noun phrase: Diatheis: D1=(X=AgOb)(Y+SUBabs/nom) [Shibatani 1995: 7].
Source: [McIntosh 1984: 108; Shibatani 1995: 7]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3375 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PersonalPassiveVoice

PersonalPassiveVoice; admitted name
PersonalPassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3386

Identifier: PersonalPassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A Passive in which the argument mapped to Object in a basic structural configuration assumes the Subject relation in a corresponding nonbasic configuration [Klaiman 1991: 23].
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3386 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlainMiddleVoice

PlainMiddleVoice; admitted name
PlainMiddleVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainMiddleVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3397

Identifier: PlainMiddleVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Results of action occur to subject [Siewierska 1988: 257].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3397 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PragmaticInverseVoice

PragmaticInverseVoice; admitted name
PragmaticInverseVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PragmaticInverseVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3412

Identifier: PragmaticInverseVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: If the agent is more topical than the patient, the direct-active clause is used. If norm is reversed and the patient is more topical, the inverse clause is used. [Givon 1994: 23]
Source: [Givon 1994: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3412 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProgressivePassiveVoice

ProgressivePassiveVoice; admitted name
ProgressivePassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProgressivePassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3430

Identifier: ProgressivePassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A passive in Irish in which the preposition "at" is used, and a semantic meaning of progressive tense is found [Noonan 1994: 280].
Source: [Noonan 1994: 280]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3430 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PromotionalInverseVoice

PromotionalInverseVoice; admitted name
PromotionalInverseVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PromotionalInverseVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3432

Identifier: PromotionalInverseVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Involves promotion of the topical proximate-patient to subjecthood [Givon 1994: 24].
Source: [Givon 1994: 24]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3432 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReciprocalMiddleVoice

ReciprocalMiddleVoice; admitted name
ReciprocalMiddleVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalMiddleVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3444

Identifier: ReciprocalMiddleVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Referents of plural subject do action to one another [Siewierska 1988: 257].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3444 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReferentialVoice

ReferentialVoice; admitted name
ReferentialVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReferentialVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3446

Identifier: ReferentialVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: ReferentialVoice entails assignment of the absolutive to certain kinds of arguments other than logical subjects (agents) and objects (patients), targeting semantic roles such as dative, benefactive, malefactive and possessor. [Klaiman 1991: 239]
Source: [Klaiman 1991: 239]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3446 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReflexiveMiddleVoice

ReflexiveMiddleVoice; admitted name
ReflexiveMiddleVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexiveMiddleVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3447

Identifier: ReflexiveMiddleVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: Subjects perform action to self [Siewierska 1988: 257].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3447 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReflexivePassiveVoice

ReflexivePassiveVoice; admitted name
ReflexivePassiveVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePassiveVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3448

Identifier: ReflexivePassiveVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: A Passive construction which contains reflexive markings [Siewierska 1988: 257].
Source: [Siewierska 1988: 257]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3448 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemanticInverseVoice

SemanticInverseVoice; admitted name
SemanticInverseVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticInverseVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3467

Identifier: SemanticInverseVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: VoiceProperty

Definition: If the agent outranks the patient on the relevant generic topic hierarchy, the direct-active clause is used. If the relevant norm is reversed and the patient outranks the agent on the relevant hierarchy, the inverse clause is used. [Givon 1994: 23]
Source: [Givon 1994: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoiceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3467 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Object

Object; admitted name
Object; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Object; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3354

Identifier: Object   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Corresponds roughly to the class of ordinary objects. Examples include normal physical objects, geographical regions, and locations of processes, the complement of objects in the physical class. In a 4D ontology, an object is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into spatial parts roughly parallel to the time-axis. [SUMO 2010]
Source: [SUMO 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Thing. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3354 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


OrthographicSystem

OrthographicSystem; admitted name
OrthographicSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3365

Identifier: OrthographicSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A system of the art and rules of spelling according to the accepted standards, i.e., the use of the written characters of a language for forming words and sentences in conformity with the rules conventionally recognized as correct. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 155]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 155]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3365 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PartOfSpeechProperty

PartOfSpeechProperty; admitted name
PartOfSpeechProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3370

Identifier: PartOfSpeechProperty   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The property that identifies the grammatical class of a word. The main 'parts of speech' recognized by most school grammars derive from the work of the ancient Greek and Roman grammarians, primarily the noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction and interjection, with article, participle, and others often added. Because of the inexplicitness with which these terms were traditionally defined and the restricted nature of their definitions, it has become preferable to use such terms as word-class or form-class, where the grouping is based on formal criteria of a more universally applicable kind. [Crystal 1997: 280]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 280]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3370 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


Classifier

Classifier; admitted name
Classifier; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Classifier; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3113

Identifier: Classifier   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: In grammar, a morpheme whose function is to indicate the formal or semantic class to which items belong are sometimes called classifiers, e.g. -ly is an adverb classifier, -ess is a 'femininity' classifier. The marking of lexical items as belonging to the same semantic class is an important feature in many languages (e.g. Chinese, Vietnamese, Hopi), and sometimes quite unexpected bases of classification are found, in terms of shape, size, colour, movability, animacy, status and so on. [Crystal 2003: 74]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 74]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3113 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NominalClassifier

NominalClassifier; admitted name
NominalClassifier; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NominalClassifier; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3338

Identifier: NominalClassifier   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Classifier

Definition: A classifier used within a system of noun classes where the morphosyntactic loci are adjectives and, rarely, numerals, as modifiers. Nominal classifiers have all the properties of noun class system classifiers with differences regarding the size of the system (bigger); semantics (animacy/sex/shape/size), transparency of semantic basis (may be opaque), variability of assignment (possible), use in multiple classifier systems (possible), and interrelations with other categories (only with number). [Aikhenvald 2003: 68]
Source: [Aikhenvald 2003: 68]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Classifier. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3338 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NounClassifier

NounClassifier; admitted name
NounClassifier; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NounClassifier; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3348

Identifier: NounClassifier   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Classifier

Definition: A classifier is a partOfSpeech whose members express the classification of a noun [Crystal 1997: 61; Payne 1997: 107].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 61; Payne 1997: 107]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Classifier. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3348 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NumeralClassifier

NumeralClassifier; admitted name
NumeralClassifier; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NumeralClassifier; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3353

Identifier: NumeralClassifier   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Classifier

Definition: Numeral classifiers are free or bound morphemes that occur in the context of quantification, appearing contiguous to numerals in numeral noun phrases and expressions of quantity. [Aikhenvald 2003: 98; Aikhenvald in Senft 2000: 93]
Source: [Aikhenvald 2003: 98; Aikhenvald in Senft 2000: 93]

Definition: Numeral classifiers are a grammatical device that reflects how speakers categorize objects that they count or quantify [Yamamoto 2005: 1]. They are a set of classifiers used in certain languages, e.g., Japanese, to indicate the class to which the noun modified by the numeral belongs [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 23].
Source: [Yamamoto 2005: 1; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Classifier. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3353 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Determiner

Determiner; admitted name
Determiner; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Determiner; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3159

Identifier: Determiner   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A Determiner is a part of speech whose members belong to a class of noun modifiers and express the reference, including quantity, of a noun [Crystal 1997: 112].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 112]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3159 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Article

Article; admitted name
Article; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Article; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3087

Identifier: Article   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Determiner

Definition: An article is a member of a small class of determiners that identify a noun's definite or indefinite reference, and new or given status [Crystal 1997: 26].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 26]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Determiner. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3087 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DefiniteArticle

DefiniteArticle; admitted name
DefiniteArticle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DefiniteArticle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3151

Identifier: DefiniteArticle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Article

Definition: An definite article is a part of speech whose members refer to a specific, identifiable entity (or class of entities) [Crystal 1997: 107].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 107]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Article. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3151 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IndefiniteArticle

IndefiniteArticle; admitted name
IndefiniteArticle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IndefiniteArticle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3253

Identifier: IndefiniteArticle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Article

Definition: An article is a part of speech whose members are used to refer to an entity (or class of entities) which is not capable of specific identification [Crystal 1997: 193].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 193]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Article. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3253 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Expletive

Expletive; admitted name
Expletive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Expletive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3187

Identifier: Expletive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997: 127].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 127]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3187 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Functor

Functor; admitted name
Functor; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Functor; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3212

Identifier: Functor   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Functor is the class of syntactic word whose members are neither relation- nor argument-like non-relational [Anderson 1997: 20]. Typical functors include adpositions, subordinators, and complementizers.
Source: [Anderson 1997: 20]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3212 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adposition

Adposition; admitted name
Adposition; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adposition; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3069

Identifier: Adposition   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Functor

Definition: An adposition is a part of speech whose members are of a closed set and occur before or after a complement composed of a noun phrase, noun, pronoun, or clause that functions as a noun phrase and forms a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause [Comrie 1989: 91; Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86].
Source: [Comrie 1989: 91; Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Functor. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3069 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Postposition

Postposition; admitted name
Postposition; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Postposition; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3411

Identifier: Postposition   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adposition

Definition: A postposition is an adposition that occurs after its complement [Crystal 1997: 300; Payne 1997: 86].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 300; Payne 1997: 86]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adposition. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3411 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Preposition

Preposition; admitted name
Preposition; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Preposition; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3419

Identifier: Preposition   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adposition

Definition: A preposition is an adposition that occurs before its complement [Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 305; Payne 1997: 86]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adposition. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3419 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Connective

Connective; admitted name
Connective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Connective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3133

Identifier: Connective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Functor

Definition: Also known as a conjunction, a Connective is a class of parts of speech whose members syntactically link words or larger constituents, and expresses a semantic relationship between them. A conjunction is positionally fixed relative to one or more of the elements related by it, thus distinguishing it from constituents such as English conjunctive adverbs [Crystal 1997: 81].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 81]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Functor. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3133 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CoordinatingConnective

CoordinatingConnective; admitted name
CoordinatingConnective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoordinatingConnective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3141

Identifier: CoordinatingConnective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Connective

Definition: A coordinating connective is a connective that links constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other [Crystal 1997: 93].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 93]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Connective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3141 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Conjunction

Conjunction; admitted name
Conjunction; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Conjunction; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3132

Identifier: Conjunction   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoordinatingConnective

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to an item or a process whose primary function is to connect words or other constructions. The conventional subclassification of these 'connective' items distinguishes co-ordinating conjunctions (e.g. and, or, but) and subordinating conjunctions (e.g. because, when, unless) -- also referred to as 'co-ordinators' and 'subordinators' respectively. [Crystal 2008: 101]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 101]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3132 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CorrelativeConnective

CorrelativeConnective; admitted name
CorrelativeConnective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CorrelativeConnective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3145

Identifier: CorrelativeConnective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoordinatingConnective

Definition: A correlative connective is either of a pair of coordinating conjunctions (connectives) used in ordered fashion. Typically, one is used immediately before each member of a pair of constituents [Crystal 1997: 96].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 96]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3145 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Disjunction

Disjunction; admitted name
Disjunction; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Disjunction; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3168

Identifier: Disjunction   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoordinatingConnective

Definition: Disjunction refers to a process whose primary function is to mark a relationship of contrast or comparison between structures, using such disjunctive items as 'or' and 'but'. [Crystal 1985: 97]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 97]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3168 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubordinatingConnective

SubordinatingConnective; admitted name
SubordinatingConnective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3497

Identifier: SubordinatingConnective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Connective

Definition: A subordinating connective is a connective that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of another. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent. [Crystal 1997: 370]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 370]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Connective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3497 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adverbializer

Adverbializer; admitted name
Adverbializer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adverbializer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3071

Identifier: Adverbializer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinatingConnective

Definition: An adverbializer is a subordinating connective that links a subordinate clause to a main clause, and indicates that the subordinate clause has an adverbial or interpropositional relation to the main clause, indicating purpose, condition, time, and location. [SIL International 2004]
Source: [SIL International 2004]

Definition: Marks clauses as having some adverbial function, such as the expression of time, purpose, result, etc. In some languages, many of the words that serve as adverbializers also serve as prepositional or postpositional noun adjuncts. In some languages, an adverbializer in a subordinate clause may be optionally paired with another conjunction occurring in the main clause. There are also cases where an adverbializer in a subordinate clause is obligatorily paired with a conjunction in the main clause. [Schachter 1985: 51-52]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 51-52]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3071 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Complementizer

Complementizer; admitted name
Complementizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Complementizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3124

Identifier: Complementizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinatingConnective

Definition: A complementizer is a connective which marks a complement clause [Crystal 1997: 75].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 75]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3124 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Relativizer

Relativizer; admitted name
Relativizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Relativizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3454

Identifier: Relativizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinatingConnective

Definition: A relativizer is a subordinating connective that links a relative clause to its head noun. It is distinguishable from a relative pronoun in that it does not have a nominal function within the relative clause. [Payne 1997: 332]
Source: [Payne 1997: 332]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3454 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Interjection

Interjection; admitted name
Interjection; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Interjection; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3266

Identifier: Interjection   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An interjection is a part of speech, typically brief in form, such as one syllable or word, whose members are used most often as exclamations or parts of an exclamation. An interjection, typically expressing an emotional reaction, often with respect to an accompanying sentence, is not syntactically related to other accompanying expressions, and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language [Crystal 1997: 200].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 200]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3266 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterrogativeOperator

InterrogativeOperator; admitted name
InterrogativeOperator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterrogativeOperator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3271

Identifier: InterrogativeOperator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Also referred to as a 'question particle', an interrogative operator is a category whose members signal a yes/no question [Payne 1997: 296].
Source: [Payne 1997: 296]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3271 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Modal

Modal; admitted name
Modal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Modal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3319

Identifier: Modal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A part of speech, usually associated with a verbal system, that expresses the concept of necessity and possibility, as well as the subject's attitude toward the factuality or actualization of the situation expressed by the rest of the clause. Modals can code inception, termination, persistence, success, failure, attempt, intent, obligation or ability vis-a-vis the complement state/event, and the subject of the main clause is obligatorily also the subject of the complement clause. [Palmer 2001: 2; Givon 1984: 533; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 173]
Source: [Palmer 2001: 2; Givon 1984: 533; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 173]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3319 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NegationOperator

NegationOperator; admitted name
NegationOperator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NegationOperator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3334

Identifier: NegationOperator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: NegationOperator is a negative-marking phrase located in scope position of the verb (specifier or adjoined position). Also called a "negation particle", it is normally associated with the main verb of the clause but may also be a clause-level clitic.[Payne 2007:284; Haegeman 1995: 107, 286]
Source: [Payne 2007:284; Haegeman 1995: 107, 286]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3334 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Nominal

Nominal; admitted name
Nominal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Nominal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3337

Identifier: Nominal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A nominal is a partOfSpeech whose members differ grammatically from a substantive but which functions as one [Crystal 1997: 260].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 260]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3337 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Noun

Noun; admitted name
Noun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Noun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3347

Identifier: Noun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used in the grammatical classification of words, traditionally defines as the "name of a person, place or thing," but the vagueness associated with the notions of "name" and "thing" (e.g. is 'beauty' a thing?) has led linguistic descriptions to analyze this class in terms of the formal and functional criteria of syntax and morphology. In linguistic terms, nouns are items which display certain types of inflection (e.g. of case or number), have a specific distribution (e.g. they may follow prepositions but not, say, modals), and perform a specific syntactic function (e.g. as subject or object of a sentence). Nouns are generally subclassified into common and proper types, and analyzed in terms of number, gender, case and countability. [Crystal 2008: 320]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 320]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3347 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CommonNoun

CommonNoun; admitted name
CommonNoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CommonNoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3121

Identifier: CommonNoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Noun

Definition: CommonNouns refer to a class of objects, places, ideas, and so on. This is in contrast with ProperNoun. [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]
Source: [Brown and Miller 1999: 424]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Noun. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3121 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Gerund

Gerund; admitted name
Gerund; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Gerund; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3222

Identifier: Gerund   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Noun

Definition: A part of speech derived from a verb and used as a noun, usually restricted to non-finite forms of the verb [Crystal 1997: 279].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 279]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Noun. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3222 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProperNoun

ProperNoun; admitted name
ProperNoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProperNoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3434

Identifier: ProperNoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Noun

Definition: ProperNoun, also referred to as proper names, is the class of nouns that are used to address particular persons or culturally significant personages or places. They refer to specific entities and are not usually with articles, modifiers, possessors. [Payne 1997: 39]
Source: [Payne 1997: 39]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Noun. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3434 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Participle

Participle; admitted name
Participle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Participle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3371

Identifier: Participle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A participle is a word which participates as both a verb (by showing tense) and as an adjective (by showing adjectival inflection). In modern usage, the term refers to a non-finite part of the verb other than the infinitive (independent of the function of these forms in the sentence). [Bauer 2004: 82]
Source: [Bauer 2004: 82]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3371 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Particle

Particle; admitted name
Particle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Particle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3372

Identifier: Particle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A term used to refer to an invariable item with grammatical function, especially one which does not readily fit into a standard classification of parts of speech. [Crystal 1997: 279-280]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 279-280]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3372 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NominalParticle

NominalParticle; admitted name
NominalParticle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NominalParticle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3339

Identifier: NominalParticle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Particle

Definition: A nominal particle is a member of a closed class of particles that co-occur with nouns.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Particle. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3339 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VerbalParticle

VerbalParticle; admitted name
VerbalParticle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VerbalParticle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3546

Identifier: VerbalParticle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Particle

Definition: Verbal particles are a closed class of uninflected words that co-occur with certain verbs. In some cases the verbal particles may have clearly distinguishable locative or directional meanings. In some languages some or all of the verbal particles also occur as (and are historically derived from) adpositions. In other languages, however, for example Ga'anda, the verbal particles are entirely distinct from adpositions. [Schachter 1985: 45-46]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 45-46]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Particle. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3546 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Predicator

Predicator; admitted name
Predicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3415

Identifier: Predicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Predicator is the class of syntactic words that are fundamentally relation inducing. That is, predicators license argument structure [Anderson 1997: 14]. Verbs are quintessential predicators, though other categories, such as determiners and some nouns, are also predicative in nature.
Source: [Anderson 1997: 14]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3415 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adjectival

Adjectival; admitted name
Adjectival; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adjectival; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3066

Identifier: Adjectival   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: An adjectival, or 'adjective', is a part of speech whose members modify nouns. An adjectival specifies the attributes of a noun referent. Note: this is one case among many. Adjectivals are a class of modifiers. An adjectival may be inflected as comparitive or superlative [Crystal 1997: 8; Payne 1997: 63].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 8; Payne 1997: 63]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3066 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ComparativeAdjective

ComparativeAdjective; admitted name
ComparativeAdjective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ComparativeAdjective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3122

Identifier: ComparativeAdjective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adjectival

Definition: The form of an adjective which expresses that one thing possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than another thing or in relation to another reference point. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 43]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 43]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adjectival. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3122 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlainAdjective

PlainAdjective; admitted name
PlainAdjective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlainAdjective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3396

Identifier: PlainAdjective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adjectival

Definition: An adjective without any markings for comparative or superlative form, sometimes called "positive" form. It is that form of an adjective which merely expresses the presence of a quality or condition, without comparing or indicating its degree. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 172, Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 172, Hartmann and Stork 1972: 5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adjectival. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3396 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SuperlativeAdjective

SuperlativeAdjective; admitted name
SuperlativeAdjective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SuperlativeAdjective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3505

Identifier: SuperlativeAdjective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adjectival

Definition: That form of an adjective that expresses that the thing to which it refers possesses a certain quality or attribute to a greater extent than any other thing [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207].
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 60; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 207]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adjectival. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3505 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VerbalAdjective

VerbalAdjective; admitted name
VerbalAdjective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VerbalAdjective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3545

Identifier: VerbalAdjective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Adjectival

Definition: An adjectival which is closely related in form and or meaning to a verb. For example, -ed and -ing forms in English which are used as adjectives. [Crystal 1985: 326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 227]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 249; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 227]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adjectival. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3545 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Adverbial

Adverbial; admitted name
Adverbial; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Adverbial; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3070

Identifier: Adverbial   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: An adverbial, or 'adverb', narrowly defined, is a part of speech whose members modify verbs for such categories as time, manner, place, or direction. An adverbal, broadly defined, is a part of speech whose members modify any constituent class of words other than nouns, such as verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Under this definition, the possible type of modification depends on the class of the constituent being modified [Crystal 1997: 11; Payne 1997: 69].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 11; Payne 1997: 69]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3070 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


BinaryPredicator

BinaryPredicator; admitted name
BinaryPredicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BinaryPredicator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3100

Identifier: BinaryPredicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: Binary predicates define relationships between keywords. Each binary predicate is viewed as function: given the value of the first argument, it returns the set of values for the second argument that would make the predicate true. [Feldman and Hirsh 1996: 344] BinaryPredicators are the class of syntactic words that require two arguments.
Source: [Feldman and Hirsh 1996: 344]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3100 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TransitiveVerb

TransitiveVerb; admitted name
TransitiveVerb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TransitiveVerb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3532

Identifier: TransitiveVerb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BinaryPredicator

Definition: A transitive verb is a verb that takes a direct object, and describes a relation between two participants [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BinaryPredicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3532 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Complement

Complement; admitted name
Complement; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Complement; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3414

Identifier: Complement   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: A complement, also called a predicative, is a phrase that gives a description of the subject or object via the verb, while the verb itself expresses no adequate thought without being complemented by this addition. Most typically this is an adjective phrase. [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 251]
Source: [Asher 1994: 4881; Jespersen 2006: 89; Huddleston and Pullam 2002: 251]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3414 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TertiaryPredicator

TertiaryPredicator; admitted name
TertiaryPredicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TertiaryPredicator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3524

Identifier: TertiaryPredicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: TertiaryPredicator is the class of syntactic words that take three required arguments.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3524 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DitransitiveVerb

DitransitiveVerb; admitted name
DitransitiveVerb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DitransitiveVerb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3171

Identifier: DitransitiveVerb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TertiaryPredicator

Definition: A ditransitive verb is a verb that takes two objects [Crystal 1997: 397].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 397]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TertiaryPredicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3171 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


UnaryPredicator

UnaryPredicator; admitted name
UnaryPredicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/UnaryPredicator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3538

Identifier: UnaryPredicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: UnaryPredicator is the class of syntactic words that take only one required argument.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3538 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IntransitiveVerb

IntransitiveVerb; admitted name
IntransitiveVerb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IntransitiveVerb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3275

Identifier: IntransitiveVerb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: UnaryPredicator

Definition: An intransitive verb is a verb that cannot take a direct object, and describes a property, state, or situation involving only one participant [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 397; Payne 1997: 171]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/UnaryPredicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3275 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Verbal

Verbal; admitted name
Verbal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3544

Identifier: Verbal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: A Verbal is a part of speech whose members typically signal events and actions; constitute, singly or in a phrase, a minimal predicate in a clause; govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause; and, in inflectional languages, may be inflected for tense, aspect, voice, modality, or agreement with other constituents in person, number, or grammatical gender [Crystal 1997: 409; Givon 1984: 52; Payne 1997: 47].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 409; Givon 1984: 52; Payne 1997: 47]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3544 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Auxiliary

Auxiliary; admitted name
Auxiliary; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Auxiliary; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3095

Identifier: Auxiliary   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: Auxiliary is a term used to describe verbs which are used in coordination with another verb to express mood, tense or aspect of the action denoted by the main verb. Marginal auxiliaries share some of these properties, but not all. [Crystal 1985: 28; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 23]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 28; Pei and Gaynor 1980: 23]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3095 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CoVerb

CoVerb; admitted name
CoVerb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoVerb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3118

Identifier: CoVerb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: A term referring to complex predicates comprised of two verbs; one of these is an auxiliary which contributes some form of meaning in the form of modality, direction, etc. They serve a similar purpose to adpositions in Indo-European languages, and are almost always translated as such. Some examples are found in some east and southeast Asian languages, as well as African languages and Hungarian. [Yang and Kuo 1998: 20]
Source: [Yang and Kuo 1998: 20]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3118 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Converb

Converb; admitted name
Converb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Converb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3642

Identifier: Converb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: A nonfinite verb form, i.e., lacking specifications for tense, mood, and agreement with their arguments, whose main function is to mark adverbial subordination. Converbal constructions are generally not arguments but modifiers, and they generally modify verbs, clauses or sentences, but not nouns or noun phrases. They are embedded or incorporated into the superordinate clause, and contrast with coordinate constructions. Converbal constructions can often be paraphrased by means of coordinate constructions in languages that allow coordination of clauses, such as in the gloss for the Korean example below. [Haspelmath 1995: 3-8]
Source: [Haspelmath 1995: 3-8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3642 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Copula

Copula; admitted name
Copula; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Copula; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3142

Identifier: Copula   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: Indicates a relationship of equivalency between the subject and predicate or complement of a clause. Verbal copulas have essentially the same morphosyntactic properties as verbs: English 'be', Spanish 'ser', and Russian 'byt’' are illustrations of this class. Nonverbal copular items include the the pro-copula - a demonstrative or personal pronoun which serves as the linker between subject and predicate nominal, and which is obligatory in nominal predication - and particle copulas, which have their origin in a variety of markers of discourse-oriented phenomena such as topicalization, backgrounding, or contrastive focus for subjects or predicates. Zero copula refers to a construction in which the relation between a subject and a nominal predicate is not marked by an overt item. Zero copula is mandatory in some languages, such as Sinhalese, whereas it is conditional or restricted in other languages, such as Russian. [Stassen 2008]
Source: [Stassen 2008]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3142 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Copulative

Copulative; admitted name
Copulative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Copulative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3143

Identifier: Copulative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: A verb such as 'be', 'seem', 'become', 'look', etc. which relates the subject to the complement, e.g. in 'He is a teacher', 'The policeman seemed not at all satisfied', 'It got worse and and worse'. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 55]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 55]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3143 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ExistentialMarker

ExistentialMarker; admitted name
ExistentialMarker; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ExistentialMarker; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3186

Identifier: ExistentialMarker   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: An existential marker is a syntactic category whose members are found in distinct clause types and which mark a referent's existence [Crystal 1997: 142].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 142]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3186 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProVerb

ProVerb; admitted name
ProVerb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProVerb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3436

Identifier: ProVerb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Verbal

Definition: A proverb (frequently written "pro-verb") is a ProForm that substitutes for a verb or verb phrase. [Schachter 1985: 34]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 34]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Verbal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3436 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ZeroPlacePredicator

ZeroPlacePredicator; admitted name
ZeroPlacePredicator; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ZeroPlacePredicator; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3560

Identifier: ZeroPlacePredicator   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Predicator

Definition: ZeroPlacePredicator is the class of syntactic words that need not take any arguments, but act as predicators nevertheless.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Predicator. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3560 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Prenoun

Prenoun; admitted name
Prenoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Prenoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3418

Identifier: Prenoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An element which may be compounded to the front of a noun to signal information such as size, color, etc. [Valentine 2001: 152-154].
Source: [Valentine 2001: 152-154]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3418 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Preverb

Preverb; admitted name
Preverb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Preverb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3422

Identifier: Preverb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An element which may be compounded to the front of a verb, to signal information such as tense, direction, etc. [Valentine 2001: 154-158].
Source: [Valentine 2001: 154-158]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3422 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ProForm

ProForm; admitted name
ProForm; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProForm; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3423

Identifier: ProForm   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A ProForm is a partOfSpeech whose members usually substitute for other constituents, including phrases, clauses, or sentences, and whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context [Crystal 1997: 310; Schachter 1985: 24-25].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 310; Schachter 1985: 24-25]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3423 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


InterrogativeProform

InterrogativeProform; admitted name
InterrogativeProform; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/InterrogativeProform; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3272

Identifier: InterrogativeProform   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ProForm

Definition: An InterrogativeProform is a Proform that is used in questions to stand for the item questioned. [Schachter 1985: 34]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 34]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProForm. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3272 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Proadjective

Proadjective; admitted name
Proadjective; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Proadjective; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3424

Identifier: Proadjective   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ProForm

Definition: A Proadjective is a ProForm that substitutes for an adjective or adjective phrase. [Crystal 1997: 310]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 310]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProForm. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3424 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Proadverb

Proadverb; admitted name
Proadverb; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Proadverb; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3425

Identifier: Proadverb   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ProForm

Definition: A Proadverb is a Proform that substitutes for an adverb or other expression having an adverbial function. [Crystal 1997: 310]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 310]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProForm. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3425 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Pronominal

Pronominal; admitted name
Pronominal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3433

Identifier: Pronominal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ProForm

Definition: A Pronoun is a ProForm which functions like a noun and substitutes for a noun or noun phrase [Crystal 1997: 312].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 312]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ProForm. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3433 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Demonstrative

Demonstrative; admitted name
Demonstrative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Demonstrative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3153

Identifier: Demonstrative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A demonstrative is a determiner that is used deictically to indicate a referent's spatial, temporal, or discourse location. A demonstrative functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun [Crystal 1997: 312].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 312]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3153 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


IndefinitePronoun

IndefinitePronoun; admitted name
IndefinitePronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/IndefinitePronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3254

Identifier: IndefinitePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that belongs to a class whose members indicate indefinite reference [Crystal 1997: 312].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 312]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3254 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PersonalPronoun

PersonalPronoun; admitted name
PersonalPronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PersonalPronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3387

Identifier: PersonalPronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A pronoun used to refer to the speaker, the person spoken to, and other persons and things whose referents are presumed to be clear from the context. While some personal pronouns in some languages occur in essentially the same sentence position as other nominal expressions, it is rather common for them to show distributional peculiarities. Personal pronouns may be clitics whose distribution may be consistently distinct from that of non-clitic nominals. It is also common for the equivalent of personal pronouns to be expressed by affixes on the verb. [Schachter 1985: 25-26]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 25-26]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3387 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PossessivePronoun

PossessivePronoun; admitted name
PossessivePronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PossessivePronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3407

Identifier: PossessivePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A possessive pronoun is a pronoun that expresses ownership and relationships like ownership, such as kinship, and other forms of association [Crystal 1997: 312].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 312]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3407 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReciprocalPronoun

ReciprocalPronoun; admitted name
ReciprocalPronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReciprocalPronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3445

Identifier: ReciprocalPronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A reciprocal pronoun is a pronoun that expresses a mutual feeling or action among the referents of a plural subject [Crystal 1997: 323].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 323]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3445 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ReflexivePronoun

ReflexivePronoun; admitted name
ReflexivePronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ReflexivePronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3449

Identifier: ReflexivePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A pronoun which is interpreted as coreferential with another nominal, usually the subject, of the sentence or clause in which it occurs. [Schachter 1985: 27]
Source: [Schachter 1985: 27]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3449 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RelativePronoun

RelativePronoun; admitted name
RelativePronoun; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RelativePronoun; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3453

Identifier: RelativePronoun   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Pronominal

Definition: A relative pronoun is a pronoun that marks a relative clause, functions grammatically within the relative clause, and is coreferential to the word modified by the relative clause [Crystal 1997: 329].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 329]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Pronominal. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3453 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Quantifier

Quantifier; admitted name
Quantifier; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantifier; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3439

Identifier: Quantifier   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A quantifier is a determiner that expresses a referent's definite or indefinite number or amount. A quantifier functions as a modifier of a noun, or a pronoun. [Crystal 1997: 317]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 317]

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3439 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Numeral

Numeral; admitted name
Numeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3352

Identifier: Numeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Quantifier

Definition: A numeral is a partOfSpeech whose members function most typically as adjectives or pronouns and express a number, or relation to the number, such as one of the following: quantity, sequence, frequency, fraction [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149].
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 155; Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Quantifier. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3352 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CardinalNumeral

CardinalNumeral; admitted name
CardinalNumeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CardinalNumeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3103

Identifier: CardinalNumeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Numeral

Definition: A cardinal numeral is a numeral of the class whose members are considered basic in form, are used in counting, and are used in expressing how many objects are referred to [Crystal 1997: 52].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 52]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3103 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DistributiveNumeral

DistributiveNumeral; admitted name
DistributiveNumeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DistributiveNumeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3170

Identifier: DistributiveNumeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Numeral

Definition: Most languages also have various series of numerals, whose denotations combine the concept of number with other concepts of a variety of different kinds. The meaning of sentences containing distributive numerals can be described in terms of a binary semantic relationship of distributivity that obtains between an expression containing the distributive numeral, the distributive share, and some other expression in the sentence, the distributive key. [Gill 2005: 222] Distributive numerals are special adnominal numerals that express distributive relations, as in German ‘Die Männer trugen je drei Koffer’, ‘The men carried three suitcases each.’ English lacks distributive numerals, because in a sentence like ‘They carried three suitcases each, the numeral does not form a continuous constituent with the distributive word ‘each’, i.e. ‘three…each’ does not qualify as a numeral. [Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath and Huber 2008]
Source: [Gill 2005: 222; Michaelis, Maurer, Haspelmath and Huber 2008; ]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3170 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MultiplicativeNumeral

MultiplicativeNumeral; admitted name
MultiplicativeNumeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MultiplicativeNumeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3328

Identifier: MultiplicativeNumeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Numeral

Definition: A multiplicative numeral is a numeral that expresses how many fold or how many times [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 147].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 147]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3328 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OrdinalNumeral

OrdinalNumeral; admitted name
OrdinalNumeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrdinalNumeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3361

Identifier: OrdinalNumeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Numeral

Definition: An ordinal numeral is a numeral belonging to a class whose members designate positions in a sequence [Crystal 1997: 272].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 272]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3361 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PartitiveNumeral

PartitiveNumeral; admitted name
PartitiveNumeral; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartitiveNumeral; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3374

Identifier: PartitiveNumeral   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Numeral

Definition: A partitive numeral is a numeral that expresses a fraction [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 165].
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1954: 149; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 165]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Numeral. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3374 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Substantive

Substantive; admitted name
Substantive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Substantive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3498

Identifier: Substantive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A substantive is a member of the syntactic class in which the names of physical, concrete, relatively unchanging experiences are most typically found whose members may act as subjects and objects, and most of whose members have inherently determined grammatical gender (in languages which inflect for gender) [Crystal 1997: 264; Givon 1984: 51-52; Payne 1997: 33].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 264; Givon 1984: 51-52; Payne 1997: 33]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3498 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SyntacticArgument

SyntacticArgument; admitted name
SyntacticArgument; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SyntacticArgument; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3513

Identifier: SyntacticArgument   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: SyntacticArgument is the class of syntactic words that are fundamentally referable and non-relational [Anderson 1997: 15]. Proper names are the quintessential arguments, though pronouns and nouns possess argument properties.
Source: [Anderson 1997: 15]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3513 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PhoneticProperty

PhoneticProperty; admitted name
PhoneticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhoneticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3390

Identifier: PhoneticProperty   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of properties used to describe speech sounds. The properties given here are more or less taken directly from Ladefoged's later works, in particular, the taxonomies of Ladefoged [Ladefoged 1997].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3390 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


AcousticProperty

AcousticProperty; admitted name
AcousticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AcousticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3062

Identifier: AcousticProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of properties concerning the acoustic nature of speech sounds. [Ladefoged 2000: 161]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 161]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhoneticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3062 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ArticulatoryProperty

ArticulatoryProperty; admitted name
ArticulatoryProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ArticulatoryProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3088

Identifier: ArticulatoryProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of properties defining how sounds are produced in the mouth. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 4]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 4]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhoneticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3088 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AirstreamProperty

AirstreamProperty; admitted name
AirstreamProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AirstreamProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3074

Identifier: AirstreamProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ArticulatoryProperty

Definition: Refers to the direction of the airstream in speech sound production. In the canonical literature, there are three airstream mechanisms: pulmonic, velaric, and glottalic. Glottalic airstream mechanism is sometimes used to describe the method of production of ejectives and implosives. Ladefoged and Maddieson prefer to regard implosives and ejectives as characterized by a laryngeal parameter of movement rather than an airstream property. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372-373]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372-373]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ArticulatoryProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3074 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PulmonicProperty

PulmonicProperty; admitted name
PulmonicProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PulmonicProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3437

Identifier: PulmonicProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AirstreamProperty

Definition: Pulmonic refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated in the lungs and pushed out under the control of the respiratory muscles. [Ladefoged 2000: 122]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 122]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AirstreamProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3437 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MinusFortis

MinusFortis; admitted name
MinusFortis; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MinusFortis; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3317

Identifier: MinusFortis   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: PulmonicProperty

Definition: MinusFortis refers to a sound made without relatively strong degree of muscular effort and breath force. [Crystal 1985: 126]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PulmonicProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3317 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlusFortis

PlusFortis; admitted name
PlusFortis; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlusFortis; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3401

Identifier: PlusFortis   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: PulmonicProperty

Definition: PlusFortis refers to a sound made with relatively strong degree of muscular effort and breath force. [Crystal 1985: 126]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 126]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PulmonicProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3401 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VelaricProperty

VelaricProperty; admitted name
VelaricProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VelaricProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3542

Identifier: VelaricProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AirstreamProperty

Definition: Velaric refers to an air-stream mechanism wherein the air is generated by a closure at the velar position, rather than an air-stream generated by the lungs. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made farther forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue, drawing air into or pushing air out of the mouth. The clicks of some African languages are produced in this way. In English, they may be heard in the 'tut tut' sound. [Crystal 1985: 325-326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 8]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 325-326; Hartmann and Stork 1972: 8]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AirstreamProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3542 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MinusClick

MinusClick; admitted name
MinusClick; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MinusClick; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3316

Identifier: MinusClick   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: VelaricProperty

Definition: MinusClick refers to not having the properties of a click. Clicks are stops in which the essential component is the rarefaction of air enclosed between two articulatory closures formed in the oral cavity, so that a loud transient is produced when the more forward closure is released. This uses the velaric airstream mechanism, always ingressive, and cannot be used for sounds other than stops and affricates. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VelaricProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3316 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlusClick

PlusClick; admitted name
PlusClick; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlusClick; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3400

Identifier: PlusClick   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: VelaricProperty

Definition: PlusClick refers to having the properties of a click. Clicks are stops in which the essential component is the rarefaction of air enclosed between two articulatory closures formed in the oral cavity, so that a loud transient is produced when the more forward closure is released. This uses the velaric airstream mechanism, always ingressive, and cannot be used for sounds other than stops and affricates. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 246]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VelaricProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3400 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LaryngealProperty

LaryngealProperty; admitted name
LaryngealProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LaryngealProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3290

Identifier: LaryngealProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ArticulatoryProperty

Definition: The laryngeal setting refers to differences in the timing of laryngeal activity in relation to oral articulation. Most languages have phonemic contrasts between classes of stops which differ in the mode of action of the larynx, or in the timing of laryngeal activity. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 47]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 47]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ArticulatoryProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3290 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GlottalMovementProperty

GlottalMovementProperty; admitted name
GlottalMovementProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalMovementProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3223

Identifier: GlottalMovementProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LaryngealProperty

Definition: A phonation type containing the features 'raising' and 'lowering'. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 372]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3223 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GlottalStrictureProperty

GlottalStrictureProperty; admitted name
GlottalStrictureProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalStrictureProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3224

Identifier: GlottalStrictureProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LaryngealProperty

Definition: The three phonation types are part of the five possible values of Glottal Stricture that are used by languages. Sounds can have the vocal cords tightly together, as in a glottal stop, or they can be far apart as in voiceless sounds, or they can have one of the three phonation types: breathy voice, modal voice and creaky voice. Although some phoneticians have shown how terms similar to these may be combinable from the phonetic point of view, the named terms form a set of phonologically mutually exclusive possibilities. These factors point to there being an ordered set of five possibilities: [voiceless], [breathy], [modal voice], [creaky] and [closed]. It is certainly appropriate to consider these glottal states as resulting from two physiological attributes of the vocal cords, their stiffness and their aperture. However from a linguistic point of view, the named values of the feature Glottal Stricture operate as a linearly ordered set of five mutually exclusive possibilities. [Ladefoged 1997: 607-608]
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 607-608]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3224 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Breathy

Breathy; admitted name
Breathy; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Breathy; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3101

Identifier: Breathy   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalStrictureProperty

Definition: With regard to classifications of vocal qualities, this refers to an effect produced by allowing a large amount of air to pass through the partially open glottis. Some speakers have this as a permanent characteristic of their speech patterns. [Crystal 1985: 38]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 38]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalStrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3101 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Close

Close; admitted name
Close; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Close; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3116

Identifier: Close   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalStrictureProperty

Definition: In the classification of tongue movement when articulating vowel sounds, this refers to one produced with the tongue in the highest vertical position possible within the mouth without causing audible friction. [Crystal 1980: 64]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 64]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalStrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3116 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Creaky

Creaky; admitted name
Creaky; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Creaky; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3146

Identifier: Creaky   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalStrictureProperty

Definition: A term referring to a vocal quality in phonetic sound classification in which only one end of the vocal cords vibrates, and does so very slowly. This is a permanent feature of some speakers' voices. [Crystal 1980: 97]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 97]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalStrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3146 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ModalVoice

ModalVoice; admitted name
ModalVoice; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ModalVoice; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3320

Identifier: ModalVoice   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalStrictureProperty

Definition: Regular vibrations of the vocal folds at any frequency within the speaker's normal range. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalStrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3320 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GlottalTimingProperty

GlottalTimingProperty; admitted name
GlottalTimingProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalTimingProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3225

Identifier: GlottalTimingProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LaryngealProperty

Definition: A phonation type containing the features 'aspirated' and 'unaspirated. Aspiration involves matters of relativing timing between laryngeal and oral articulations, and the wider opening can be viewed as an aspect of the control of this timing. There are two ways of interpreting this greather width; it can be seen as the essential aspect of the production of voiceless aspiration, that is, aspiration is an extra-wide opening of the vocal folds [Kim 1965], or it can be seen as a by-product of the mechanism by which a delay between the offset of the oral and glottal gestures is achieved, that is, aspiration is esentially a matter of the timing between speech movements controlling laryngeal setting and oral articulation [Goldstein and Browman 1986]. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 49-66; 372]
Source: [Kim 1965; Goldstein and Browman 1986; Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 49-66; 372]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3225 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Aspirated

Aspirated; admitted name
Aspirated; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Aspirated; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3090

Identifier: Aspirated   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalTimingProperty

Definition: A sound is described as 'aspirated' when it has a greater rate of airflow than occurs in modal voice for a period of time before or after a stricture. It often accompanies a consonant which precedes a vowel, the beginning of which is unvoiced. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalTimingProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3090 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Unaspirated

Unaspirated; admitted name
Unaspirated; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Unaspirated; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3539

Identifier: Unaspirated   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GlottalTimingProperty

Definition: Unaspirated refers to the configuration of glottal opening, release at the oral stricture, and vocal fold vibration in which the glottal opening gesture begins at the moment that the oral closure is made, but the maximum width of the glottal opening is reached at about the mid-point of the oral closure duration and the vocal folds return to a voicing position at about the moment of release. This typically results in a weak sounding release which lacks the burst of air characteristic of aspirated phonemes. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 66-70]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 66-70]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GlottalTimingProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3539 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


VoicingProperty

VoicingProperty; admitted name
VoicingProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoicingProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3554

Identifier: VoicingProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LaryngealProperty

Definition: Refers to the vibratory activity of the vocal folds. Most languages have phonemic contrasts between voiced and voiceless sounds (regular vibration of the vocal folds versus no vibration of the vocal folds respectively). However, Ladefoged and Maddieson recognize five steps in the continuum of modes of vibration in the glottis, going from breathy voice - the most open setting of the vocal folds in which vibration will occur, passing through slack voice, modal voice, and stiff voice, ending with creaky voice - the most constricted setting in which vibration will occur. Each of these modes of voicing may or may not be phonemic in a given language. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48-49]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 48-49]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3554 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Voiced

Voiced; admitted name
Voiced; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Voiced; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3552

Identifier: Voiced   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: VoicingProperty

Definition: A fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds, referring to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. Sounds produced while the vocal cords are vibrating are voiced. [Crystal 1985: 329]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 329]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoicingProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3552 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Voiceless

Voiceless; admitted name
Voiceless; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Voiceless; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3553

Identifier: Voiceless   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: VoicingProperty

Definition: A fundamental term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds, referring to the auditory result of the vibration of the vocal cords. Sounds produced while the vocal cords are not vibrating are voiceless. [Crystal 1985: 329]
Source: [Crystal 1985: 329]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/VoicingProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3553 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SupraLaryngealProperty

SupraLaryngealProperty; admitted name
SupraLaryngealProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SupraLaryngealProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3509

Identifier: SupraLaryngealProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ArticulatoryProperty

Definition: The supralaryngeal node dominates the activity of all of the articulators except stiffening and slacking of the vocal folds. For consonants it can be viewed as the default node which comes into play when the supranasal node below it is deactivated. In the case of sounds produced by an articulator dominated by this node, the only possible segments are those which are traditionally classified as [-consonantal]. It is not necessary to specify manner features for sounds dominated by the supralaryngeal node, because they are redundantly determined. [Keyser and Stevens 1994: 216]
Source: [Keyser and Stevens 1994: 216]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ArticulatoryProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3509 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MannerProperty

MannerProperty; admitted name
MannerProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MannerProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3311

Identifier: MannerProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SupraLaryngealProperty

Definition: A sound property referring to the kind of articulatory process used in a sound's production. The distinction between vowel and consonant is usually made in terms of manner of articulation. Within consonants, several articulatory types are recognized based on the type of closure made by the vocal organs. Within vowels, classification is based on the number of auditory qualities distinguishable in the sound, the position of the soft palate, and the type of lip position. [Crystal 1997: 232]
Source: [Crystal 1997: 232]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SupraLaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3311 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


StrictureProperty

StrictureProperty; admitted name
StrictureProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StrictureProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3488

Identifier: StrictureProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MannerProperty

Definition: A general term used in Phonetics to refer to an articulation which restricts the airstream to some degree, ranging from a complete closure to a slight narrowing. [Crystal 2008: 456]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 456]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MannerProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3488 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Approximant

Approximant; admitted name
Approximant; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Approximant; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3085

Identifier: Approximant   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: StrictureProperty

Definition: This term is used to classify sounds based on their manner of articulation. Sounds possessing this trait are those in which the involved articulators approach one another, but not close enough to produce audible friction. [Crystal 1980: 30]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 30]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3085 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Fricative

Fricative; admitted name
Fricative; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Fricative; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3209

Identifier: Fricative   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: StrictureProperty

Definition: Fricative sounds are those in which a turbulent airstream is produced within the vocal tract. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 137]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 137]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3209 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Stop

Stop; admitted name
Stop; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Stop; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3487

Identifier: Stop   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: StrictureProperty

Definition: A term used in the phonetic classification of speech sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation. It refers to any sound which is produced by a complete closure in the vocal tract. [Crystal 2008: 453]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 453]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/StrictureProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3487 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TrillProperty

TrillProperty; admitted name
TrillProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TrillProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3537

Identifier: TrillProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: MannerProperty

Definition: A term in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their manner of articulation: also known as trilled consonant, or a roll, 'trill' refers to any sound made by the rapid tapping of one organ of articulation against another. [Crystal 2008: 496]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 496]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MannerProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3537 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Tap

Tap; admitted name
Tap; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Tap; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3517

Identifier: Tap   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TrillProperty

Definition: A Tap 'is a sound in which a brief contact between the articulators is made by moving the active articulator directly towards the roof of the mouth.' A tap is 'usually coronal. ... Taps are most typically made by a direct movement of the tongue tip to a contact location in the dental or alveolar region.' [Ladefoged 1996: 231]
Source: [Ladefoged 1996: 231]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TrillProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3517 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Trill

Trill; admitted name
Trill; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Trill; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3536

Identifier: Trill   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TrillProperty

Definition: The vibration of one speech organ against another, driven by the aerodynamic conditions. One of the soft moveable parts of the vocal tract is placed close enough to another surface, so that when a current of air of the right strength passes through the aperture created by this configuration, a repeating pattern of closing and opening of the flow channel occurs. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 217]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 217]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TrillProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3536 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


NasalityProperty

NasalityProperty; admitted name
NasalityProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NasalityProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3329

Identifier: NasalityProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SupraLaryngealProperty

Definition: The class of properties that describe the degree to which the velum or soft palate is raised or lowered, allowing or prohibiting air from escaping through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143]
Source: [Kenstowicz 1994: 143]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SupraLaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3329 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MinusNasal

MinusNasal; admitted name
MinusNasal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MinusNasal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3318

Identifier: MinusNasal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: NasalityProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds in which the palatal tensor muscles and the levator palatine muscle raise the velum, preventing air from escaping through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]
Source: [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NasalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3318 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlusNasal

PlusNasal; admitted name
PlusNasal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlusNasal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3402

Identifier: PlusNasal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: NasalityProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds in which the palatorpharyngeal and palatoglossus muscles lower the velum, allowing air to go out through the nose. [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]
Source: [Kenstowicz 1994: 143; Ladefoged 2000: 274]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/NasalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3402 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlaceProperty

PlaceProperty; admitted name
PlaceProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlaceProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3395

Identifier: PlaceProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SupraLaryngealProperty

Definition: The superclass of properties that specify the location of the articulators [Ladefoged 1997: 594].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 594]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SupraLaryngealProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3395 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


BuccalProperty

BuccalProperty; admitted name
BuccalProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BuccalProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3102

Identifier: BuccalProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: PlaceProperty

Definition: A subclass of place properties roughly referring to positions inside the mouth [Ladefoged 1997: 606].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 606]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlaceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3102 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CoronalProperty

CoronalProperty; admitted name
CoronalProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoronalProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3144

Identifier: CoronalProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BuccalProperty

Definition: Properties of sounds produced with passive articulators either lying on the coronal axis, with the blade of the tongue raised from its neutral position, or in the neutral position (for non-coronal sounds). [Crystal 1980: 94]
Source: [Crystal 1980: 94]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BuccalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3144 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


AnteriorProperty

AnteriorProperty; admitted name
AnteriorProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AnteriorProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3079

Identifier: AnteriorProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoronalProperty

Definition: Properties characterized by focusing on the upper passive articulator on the roof of the mouth [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 597]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoronalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3079 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Alveolar

Alveolar; admitted name
Alveolar; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Alveolar; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3076

Identifier: Alveolar   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AnteriorProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced with the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 598].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 598]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AnteriorProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3076 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Dental

Dental; admitted name
Dental; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dental; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3154

Identifier: Dental   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AnteriorProperty

Definition: A consonant which involves the teeth, normally the upper teeth, as the passive articulators in its articulation. The tip or apex of the tongue usually acts as the active articulator. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 61]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 61]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AnteriorProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3154 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Postalveolar

Postalveolar; admitted name
Postalveolar; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Postalveolar; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3410

Identifier: Postalveolar   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: AnteriorProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced with the area just behind the center of the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 597]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/AnteriorProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3410 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ApicalityProperty

ApicalityProperty; admitted name
ApicalityProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ApicalityProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3083

Identifier: ApicalityProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: CoronalProperty

Definition: Properties characterized by focusing on the action of the lower, active articulator, i.e. which part of the tongue is used in articulation [Ladefoged 1997: 597].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 597]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CoronalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3083 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Apical

Apical; admitted name
Apical; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Apical; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3082

Identifier: Apical   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ApicalityProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced by the tip of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 596]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ApicalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3082 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Laminal

Laminal; admitted name
Laminal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Laminal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3285

Identifier: Laminal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ApicalityProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced by the blade of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 596]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ApicalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3285 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Sublaminal

Sublaminal; admitted name
Sublaminal; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Sublaminal; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3494

Identifier: Sublaminal   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: ApicalityProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced by the underside of the tip of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 596].
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 596]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ApicalityProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3494 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


DorsalProperty

DorsalProperty; admitted name
DorsalProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DorsalProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3172

Identifier: DorsalProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BuccalProperty

Definition: The class of properties associated with sounds made with the body of the tongue [Ladefoged 1997: 601]. Almost all vowels can be described using subclasses of this property.
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 601]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BuccalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3172 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


BacknessProperty

BacknessProperty; admitted name
BacknessProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BacknessProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3098

Identifier: BacknessProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DorsalProperty

Definition: A feature of vowel quality that correlates the difference between frequencies of formant two and formant one (overtones corresponding to a resonating frequency of the air in the vocal tract) [Ladefoged 2000: 215, 273]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 215, 273]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DorsalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3098 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Back

Back; admitted name
Back; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Back; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3097

Identifier: Back   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BacknessProperty

Definition: A vowel sound produced with the tongue retracted towards the back of the oral cavity, e.g. [a:] as in English ‘calm’ or [u:] as in English ‘soon’. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 25]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 25]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BacknessProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3097 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Central

Central; admitted name
Central; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Central; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3107

Identifier: Central   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BacknessProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced with the tongue near the center of the mouth (along the front-back dimension).
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BacknessProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3107 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Front

Front; admitted name
Front; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Front; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3210

Identifier: Front   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BacknessProperty

Definition: The highest point of the tongue is in the front of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000: 12]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 12]

Definition: A sound made with the front part of the tongue, in the area of the hard palate. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 78]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 78]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BacknessProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3210 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


HeightProperty

HeightProperty; admitted name
HeightProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HeightProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3234

Identifier: HeightProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: DorsalProperty

Definition: The class of features describing sounds based on the relative vertical position of the tongue. Note, Ladefoged refers to this feature as High.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/DorsalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3234 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


High

High; admitted name
High; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/High; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3236

Identifier: High   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: HeightProperty

Definition: Description of the actual articulatory characteristics of vowels, and taken to specify the highest point of the tongue. In this view each vowel is characterized in terms of the distance of the highest point of the tongue from the roof of the mouth. [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 282-285]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 282-285]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HeightProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3236 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Low

Low; admitted name
Low; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Low; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3308

Identifier: Low   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: HeightProperty

Definition: Articulated with the highest point of the tongue more or less maximally distant from the roof of the mouth. In the SPE feature system, a distinctive feature defined as 'articulated with the body of the tongue below the neutral position.' [Trask 1996: 212]
Source: [Trask 1996: 212]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HeightProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3308 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Mid

Mid; admitted name
Mid; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Mid; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3314

Identifier: Mid   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: HeightProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds articulated between the high and low tongue positions. [Crystal 1987: 425]
Source: [Crystal 1987: 425]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/HeightProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3314 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LateralProperty

LateralProperty; admitted name
LateralProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LateralProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3292

Identifier: LateralProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: BuccalProperty

Definition: Obstruction of the airstream at a point along the center of the oral tract, with complete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the mouth. [Ladefoged 2000: 11]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 11]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/BuccalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3292 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


CentralEscape

CentralEscape; admitted name
CentralEscape; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/CentralEscape; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3108

Identifier: CentralEscape   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LateralProperty

Definition: A consonant articulated so that air passes out the center. [Ladefoged 2000: 155]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 155]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LateralProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3108 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LateralEscape

LateralEscape; admitted name
LateralEscape; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LateralEscape; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3291

Identifier: LateralEscape   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LateralProperty

Definition: Characterizing sounds produced with a release of air through the sides of the mouth. (Note, [Ladefoged 1997] refers to this as lateral.)
Source: [Ladefoged 1997]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LateralProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3291 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LabialProperty

LabialProperty; admitted name
LabialProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LabialProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3284

Identifier: LabialProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: PlaceProperty

Definition: Gestures involving the lips are said to be Labial. From the linguistic point of view the places of articulation can usefully be classified into a smaller number of groups based on the articulators they share. If consonants in which either the upper or lower lip is involved as an articulator are classified as Labials then there are three place classes among Labial sounds: the lower lip can articulate with the upper lip (bilabial), or the upper teeth (labiodentals)l and, the upper lip can also be the target for the tongue (linguo-labial). [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 10; 15-15]
Source: [Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996: 10; 15-15]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlaceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3284 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Compressed

Compressed; admitted name
Compressed; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Compressed; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3128

Identifier: Compressed   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LabialProperty

Definition: One of the three types of Labial that can be associated with sounds involving lip compression involving the vertical movement of one lip towards the other. Such a property is associated with a normal bilabial stop.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LabialProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3128 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Protruded

Protruded; admitted name
Protruded; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Protruded; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3435

Identifier: Protruded   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LabialProperty

Definition: An articulatory characteristic resulting from protrusion of the lips, often resulting in the appearance of a small labial cavity forward of the teeth and bounded at the front by the inside surfaces of the lips. Often occurring with lip rounding, the protruded quality modifies the basic articulation by extending the length of the vocal tract and altering its cross-section, resulting in lowered frequencies on all formants. Back rounded vowels are commonly more protruded than front rounded vowels. [Brosnahan and Malmberg 1976: 43, 67; Clark, Yallop and Fletcher 2007: 26, 64]
Source: [Brosnahan and Malmberg 1976: 43, 67; Clark, Yallop and Fletcher 2007: 26, 64]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LabialProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3435 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Retracted

Retracted; admitted name
Retracted; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Retracted; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3458

Identifier: Retracted   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LabialProperty

Definition: A term used in phonetics to refer to the backwards movement of an articulator, especially the back of the tongue towards the velum. Retracted sounds are heard in velarization, or the centralization of front vowels. The tongue root may also be retracted. [Crystal 2008: 398]
Source: [Crystal 2008: 398]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LabialProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3458 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


RadicalProperty

RadicalProperty; admitted name
RadicalProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RadicalProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3440

Identifier: RadicalProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: PlaceProperty

Definition: The class of place properties used to classifiy articulatory gestures made with the root of the tongue. [Ladefoged 1997: 603]
Source: [Ladefoged 1997: 603]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlaceProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3440 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


MinusATR

MinusATR; admitted name
MinusATR; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MinusATR; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3315

Identifier: MinusATR   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: RadicalProperty

Definition: MinusATR (Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made in which there is no advancement of the tongue root or lowering of the larynx. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 211]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RadicalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3315 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PlusATR

PlusATR; admitted name
PlusATR; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PlusATR; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3399

Identifier: PlusATR   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: RadicalProperty

Definition: PlusATR (Advanced Tongue Root) characterizes sounds made with the root of the tongue drawn forward and the larynx lowered so that the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. [Ladefoged 2000: 211]
Source: [Ladefoged 2000: 211]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/RadicalProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3399 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PhonologicalProperty

PhonologicalProperty; admitted name
PhonologicalProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhonologicalProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3391

Identifier: PhonologicalProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of linguistic properties that pertain to phonological units and that are used to describe the sound system of languages [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 174]. Phonological units can be analyzed into complexes of distinctive properties that cross-classify the entire inventory of possible speech sounds into a densely packed network [Kenstowicz 1994: 19].
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 174; Kenstowicz 1994: 19]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3391 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PhonologicalSystem

PhonologicalSystem; admitted name
PhonologicalSystem; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PhonologicalSystem; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3392

Identifier: PhonologicalSystem   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The set of consonant and vowel units that make up the words of a language or language variety, a phonological system is a list of contrastive sounds used in a language that are capable of distinguishing between two words with different meanings together with the ranges of variety each sound has and where those variants are found. [Ball and Mueller 2005: 120]
Source: [Ball and Mueller 2005: 120]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3392 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Process

Process; admitted name
Process; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Process; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3426

Identifier: Process   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of things that happen and have temporal parts or stages. Examples include extended events like a football match or a race, actions like pursuing and reading, and biological processes. The formal definition is: anything that occurs in time but is not an object. Note that a process may have participants 'inside' it which are objects, such as the players in a football match. In a 4D ontology, a process is something whose spatiotemporal extent is thought of as dividing into temporal stages roughly perpendicular to the time-axis. [SUMO 2010]
Source: [SUMO 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Thing. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3426 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemanticProperty

SemanticProperty; admitted name
SemanticProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3468

Identifier: SemanticProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: The class of linguistic properties that pertain to semantic units. The units that underlie our intuitions about literal meaning and are associated with the grammatical structure of a language. [Frawley 1953: 12]
Source: [Frawley 1953: 12]

Definition: In componential analysis, one of several features which together can be said to make up the semantic meaning of a word or utterance. Thus 'raining' could be analyzed into the component features 'precipitation', 'liquid' (not 'solid' as in 'hail'), 'average' (not 'light' as /drizzling/ or 'heavy' as /pouring/), etc. [...] Alternative terms: semantic feature, semantic [component], semantic marker. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 203]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 203]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3468 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SemanticUnit

SemanticUnit; admitted name
SemanticUnit; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticUnit; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3469

Identifier: SemanticUnit   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A SemanticUnit is the class of semantics elements, or units of semantic structure (sometimes called a sememe). Semantic units serve as the meaning component of linguistic signs. A semantic unit is intended for linguistic description and no particular logical representation is implied.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3469 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


LexicalizedConcept

LexicalizedConcept; admitted name
LexicalizedConcept; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LexicalizedConcept; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3295

Identifier: LexicalizedConcept   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Grammatical or semantic category expressed by a lexical item, e.g. English 'make' + 'dead' together are lexicalized as 'kill', in German 'tot' + 'machen' [are lexicalized as] 'töten', or the close linking of lexical items in an idiomatic phrase. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 129]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SemanticUnit. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3295 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SignedLinguisticExpression

SignedLinguisticExpression; admitted name
SignedLinguisticExpression; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SignedLinguisticExpression; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3473

Identifier: SignedLinguisticExpression   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A SignedLinguisticExpression is the signed physical form of language as distinct from either written or spoken expressions. Signed expressions are the primary means in which sign languages are tranmitted. A signed expression is the image sequence that is produced (and perceived) during a signing event.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3473 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SpokenLinguisticExpression

SpokenLinguisticExpression; admitted name
SpokenLinguisticExpression; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SpokenLinguisticExpression; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3484

Identifier: SpokenLinguisticExpression   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A SpokenLinguisticExpression is the physical sound form of language as distinct from either signed or spoken expressions. A spoken expression is the sound that is produced (and perceived) during a speaking event.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3484 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Taxon

Taxon; admitted name
Taxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Taxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3518

Identifier: Taxon   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Taxon is the class of scientific categories used to create a taxonomy and determined according to scientific principles in a given domain, e.g., Biology or Linguistics.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Abstract. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3518 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


LinguisticTaxon

LinguisticTaxon; admitted name
LinguisticTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3303

Identifier: LinguisticTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: LinguisticTaxon is the class of Taxons whose instances are used in the scientific classification language varieties. That is, instances of LinguisticTaxon have instances that are human language varieties.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Taxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3303 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


ContextOfUseTaxon

ContextOfUseTaxon; admitted name
ContextOfUseTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/ContextOfUseTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3138

Identifier: ContextOfUseTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LinguisticTaxon

Definition: ContextOfUseTaxon is the class of taxons whose instances classify language varieties according to how they are primarily used.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3138 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


EndangermentTaxon

EndangermentTaxon; admitted name
EndangermentTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/EndangermentTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3178

Identifier: EndangermentTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LinguisticTaxon

Definition: There are a number of ways to categorize language endangerment situations. One useful taxonomy takes into account the relative rate of attrition together with its causes. This taxonomy recognizes four different categories of attrition: sudden, radical, gradual and top to bottom. [Brown and Ogilvie 2009: 321]
Source: [Brown and Ogilvie 2009: 321]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3178 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GeneticTaxon

GeneticTaxon; admitted name
GeneticTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3219

Identifier: GeneticTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LinguisticTaxon

Definition: GeneticTaxon is the class of all taxons whose members are based on genetic relatedness.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3219 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Dialect

Dialect; admitted name
Dialect; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Dialect; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3161

Identifier: Dialect   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: A regional, temporal or social variety of a language, differing in pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary from the standard language,which is in itself a socially favoured dialect. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3161 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Isolate

Isolate; admitted name
Isolate; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Isolate; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3281

Identifier: Isolate   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: Isolate is the class of human language varieties such that there are no other varieties that are genetically related.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3281 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Language

Language; admitted name
Language; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Language; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3286

Identifier: Language   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: The most fundamental means of human communication. Language is a purely human activity, although some animals have communication systems which have certain analogies to human language. All human beings use language to interact with other members of the same speech community. Language is not only used as an instrument of communication, however, but also as a means of individual expression. Language is not instinctive; it has to be learnt as a system of arbitrary conventional symbols. Such symbols are primarily vocal, produced by the so-called organs of speech, but secondary systems such as writing and other codes may complement the vocalsystem. Some linguists, such as F. de Saussure, have stressed the view of language as general patterns in the speech of a community and as the speaking activity of an individual in a particular situation; others, with N.Chomsky, regard language as the innate capability of native speakers to understand and form grammatical sentences as as the actual utterances produced at a given time. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 123-124]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 123-124]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3286 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LanguageFamily

LanguageFamily; admitted name
LanguageFamily; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LanguageFamily; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3287

Identifier: LanguageFamily   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: Group of languages that are genetically related, i.e can be traced to a common proto-language. The ordering of languages into a common language family is usually based on phonological, morphological, and lexical correspondences that stem from the proto-language. ... it refers to the largest spectrum of languages for which a genetic relationship can be demonstrated. [Bussmann 1996: 262]
Source: [Bussmann 1996: 262]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3287 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LanguageStock

LanguageStock; admitted name
LanguageStock; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LanguageStock; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3288

Identifier: LanguageStock   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: A term used for postulated but undemonstrated higher-order, more inclusive families (proposed but as yet unproven distant genetic relationships). [Campbell 1999: 187]
Source: [Campbell 1999: 187]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3288 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


LanguageSubfamily

LanguageSubfamily; admitted name
LanguageSubfamily; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LanguageSubfamily; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3289

Identifier: LanguageSubfamily   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: GeneticTaxon

Definition: LanguageSubfamily (also called subgroup or branch) refers 'to a group of languages within a language family which are more closely related to each other than to other languages of that family.' [Campbell 1999: 187]
Source: [Campbell 1999: 187]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeneticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3289 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


GeographicTaxon

GeographicTaxon; admitted name
GeographicTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/GeographicTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3221

Identifier: GeographicTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LinguisticTaxon

Definition: GeographicTaxon is the class of linguistic taxons whose instances are groupings based on where, in general, the language varieties are used, e.g., AustralianLanguage.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3221 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PoliticalTaxon

PoliticalTaxon; admitted name
PoliticalTaxon; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PoliticalTaxon; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3404

Identifier: PoliticalTaxon   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: LinguisticTaxon

Definition: PoliticalTaxon is the class of taxons whose instances are groupings based on political entities such as states or countries or larger politically defined entities, e.g., CameroonianLanguage.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticTaxon. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3404 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Thing

Thing; admitted name
Thing; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Thing; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3525

Identifier: Thing   Type: complex/open   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: In Web Ontology Language, Thing is the superclass of all classes. The most basic concepts in a domain should correspond to classes that are the roots of various taxonomic trees. Every individual in the OWL world is a member of the class owl:Thing. Thus each user-defined class is implicitly a subclass of owl:Thing. Domain specific root classes are defined by simply declaring a named class. [Smith, Welty and McGuinness 2004]
Source: [Smith, Welty and McGuinness 2004]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). For relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3525 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


WrittenLinguisticExpression

WrittenLinguisticExpression; admitted name
WrittenLinguisticExpression; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLinguisticExpression; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3559

Identifier: WrittenLinguisticExpression   Type: complex/closed   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A WrittenLinguisticExpression is the written physical form of language as distinct from either signed or spoken expressions. A written expression is the physical product of the writing process.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/LinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3559 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


OrthographicPart

OrthographicPart; admitted name
OrthographicPart; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPart; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3362

Identifier: OrthographicPart   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An OrthographicPart is a unit of an orthography that is not orthographically independent, that is, not necessarily able to stand alone as an orthographic word set off by whitespace. In the printed instance of the word 'conceive', 'eive' is an instance of orthographic part. Note that an orthographic part is not the same as a single glyph, although, some orthographic parts are single glyphs.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3362 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Diacritic

Diacritic; admitted name
Diacritic; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Diacritic; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3160

Identifier: Diacritic   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: OrthographicPart

Definition: An auxiliary mark or symbol added above, below or after conventional graphic signs to give more information about the pronunciation of the sound represented in writing. Such diacritic marks include acute accent, apostrophe, caret, cedilla, diaeresis or umlaut, grave accent, macron, tilde and circumflex. [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]
Source: [Hartmann and Stork 1972: 65]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPart. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3160 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Digraph

Digraph; admitted name
Digraph; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Digraph; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3162

Identifier: Digraph   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: OrthographicPart

Definition: A term used in phonetics/phonology and graphics/graphology to refer to a graphic unit in which two symbols have combined to form a single element in a system. In the study of reading and spelling, digraph refers to any sequence of two letters pronounced as a single sound. [Crystal 2003: 139]
Source: [Crystal 2003: 139]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPart. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3162 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Glyph

Glyph; admitted name
Glyph; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Glyph; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3226

Identifier: Glyph   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: OrthographicPart

Definition: A shape that is the visual representation of a character. It is a graphic object stored within a font. Glyphs are objects that are recognizably related to particular characters and which are dependent on particular design. Glyphs may or may not correspond to characters in a one-to-one manner. For example, a single character may correspond to multiple glyphs that have complementary distributions based upon context (e.g. final and non-final sigma in Greek), or several characters may correspond to a single glyph known as a ligature. [Lyons, et al. 2001]
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Definition: A Glyph is a symbol used in a writing system to represent some kind of linguistic unit, such as a single sound, a phoneme or an entire word. Glyphs are concatenated in a writing system to form orthographic parts and orthographic words. Consider the printed word 'apple'. This word contains two instances of the 'p' glyph, which is a subclass of Glyph. Instances of a Glyph share a similar shape and can be called 'shapemes'. The class Glyph is not the same as Grapheme. A Grapheme is a contrastive unit within a particular writing system. The notion of a glyph is relevant across writing systems. For instance, consider the symbol 'р' used in a printed instance of a Russian word 'русский'. Now consider the symbol 'p' used in the printed instance of an English word 'pickle'. Both symbols are instances of the same Glyph. They share the same general shape, but do not have the same phonemic value.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPart. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3226 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Ligature

Ligature; admitted name
Ligature; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Ligature; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3297

Identifier: Ligature   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Glyph

Definition: The merging of two or more letters (often for aesthetic reasons) from which a single, independent form is derived. [Bussmann 1996: 281]
Source: [Bussmann 1996: 281]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Glyph. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3297 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OrthographicPhrase

OrthographicPhrase; admitted name
OrthographicPhrase; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPhrase; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3363

Identifier: OrthographicPhrase   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An OrthographicPhrase is a sequence of orthographic words.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3363 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OrthographicSentence

OrthographicSentence; admitted name
OrthographicSentence; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicSentence; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3364

Identifier: OrthographicSentence   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: OrthographicPhrase

Definition: An OrthographicSentence is a special type of orthographic phrase, usually representing a clause. In Western writing systems, an orthographic sentence is set off by white space on the left edge and some kind of puncuation, such as a period or question mark, on the right.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicPhrase. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3364 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


OrthographicWord

OrthographicWord; admitted name
OrthographicWord; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/OrthographicWord; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3366

Identifier: OrthographicWord   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An OrthographicWord is a fundamental unit of an orthography, usually set off by white space and dependent on the rules of a writing system.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3366 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Paragraph

Paragraph; admitted name
Paragraph; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Paragraph; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3369

Identifier: Paragraph   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A Paragraph is a self contained unit in written language composed of a sequence of orthographic sentences. Paragraphs are set off by vertical spacing, indentation or other conventions.
Source: [GOLD 2010]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/WrittenLinguisticExpression. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3369 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Nametype
1AbessiveCasesimple
2AbilitativeModalitysimple
3AblativeCasesimple
4AbsolutiveAntipassiveVoicesimple
5AbsolutiveCasesimple
6Abstractcomplex/open
7AccusativeCasesimple
8AcousticPropertysimple
9ActionalForcesimple
10ActiveVoicesimple
11AdessiveCasesimple
12Adjectivalsimple
13AdjectivePhrasesimple
14AdjunctSubordinatesimple
15Adpositionsimple
16Adverbialsimple
17Adverbializersimple
18Affixsimple
19AgentDeletionPassiveVoicesimple
20AirstreamPropertysimple
21AllativeCasesimple
22Alveolarsimple
23AnimateGendersimple
24AnteriorPropertysimple
25AntiCausativeVoicesimple
26AntiPassiveVoicesimple
27Apicalsimple
28ApicalityPropertysimple
29ApplicativeVoicesimple
30Approximantsimple
31ArabicNumeralGendersimple
32Articlesimple
33ArticulatoryPropertysimple
34AspectPropertysimple
35Aspiratedsimple
36AssumptiveEvidentialitysimple
37AttestedVarietysimple
38AuditoryEvidentialitysimple
39AugmentativeSizesimple
40Auxiliarysimple
41AversiveCasesimple
42Backsimple
43BacknessPropertysimple
44BenefactiveCasesimple
45BinaryPredicatorsimple
46BoundMorphemesimple
47Breathysimple
48BuccalPropertysimple
49CardinalNumeralsimple
50CasePropertysimple
51CategoryChangersimple
52CausativeVoicesimple
53Centralsimple
54CentralEscapesimple
55Charactersimple
56Circumfixsimple
57Citationsimple
58Classifiersimple
59Clausesimple
60Cliticsimple
61Closesimple
62CloseFutureTensesimple
63CoVerbsimple
64ComitativeCasesimple
65CommissiveForcesimple
66CommonNounsimple
67ComparativeAdjectivesimple
68Complementsimple
69ComplementSubordinatesimple
70Complementizersimple
71CompletiveAspectsimple
72ComplexSpecificationsimple
73Compoundsimple
74Compressedsimple
75ConditionalModalitysimple
76ConditionalPhysicalAbilitiveModalitysimple
77Conjunctionsimple
78Connectivesimple
79Consonantsimple
80ContablativeCasesimple
81ContallativeCasesimple
82ConterminativeCasesimple
83ContextOfUseTaxonsimple
84ContinuousAspectsimple
85ContlativeCasesimple
86Converbsimple
87CoordinatingConnectivesimple
88Copulasimple
89Copulativesimple
90CoronalPropertysimple
91CorrelativeConnectivesimple
92Creakysimple
93DativeCasesimple
94DeclarativeForcesimple
95DeductiveEvidentialitysimple
96DefiniteArticlesimple
97DelativeCasesimple
98Demonstrativesimple
99Dentalsimple
100DeonticModalitysimple
101DeponentMiddleVoicesimple
102DerivationalMorphemesimple
103DescribedVarietysimple
104Determinersimple
105Diacriticsimple
106Dialectsimple
107Digraphsimple
108DiminuativeSizesimple
109DirectEvidentialitysimple
110DirectVoicesimple
111DiscoursePropertycomplex/closed
112DiscourseUnitsimple
113Disjunctionsimple
114DistributiveAspectsimple
115DistributiveNumeralsimple
116DitransitiveVerbsimple
117DorsalPropertysimple
118DualNumbersimple
119DubitiveMoodsimple
120DurativeAspectsimple
121ElativeCasesimple
122Encliticsimple
123EndangermentTaxonsimple
124EpistemicModalitysimple
125EpistemicNecessityModalitysimple
126EpistemicPossibilityModalitysimple
127ErgativeCasesimple
128EssiveCasesimple
129EvaluativePropertysimple
130EvidentialityPropertysimple
131ExistentialMarkersimple
132Expletivesimple
133ExtinctVarietysimple
134FeatureAgreementSystemsimple
135FeatureAssignmentSystemsimple
136FeatureConstraintsimple
137FeatureDistributionSystemsimple
138FeatureGovernmentSystemsimple
139FeatureSpecificationsimple
140FeatureStructuresimple
141FeatureSystemsimple
142FeminineGendersimple
143FirstPersonsimple
144FirstPersonExclusivesimple
145FirstPersonInclusivesimple
146FocusAntipassiveVoicesimple
147FolkloreEvidentialitysimple
148Footsimple
149ForcePropertysimple
150FormUnitcomplex/closed
151FormalAssignmentSystemsimple
152FreeMorphemesimple
153FrequentiveAspectsimple
154Fricativesimple
155Frontsimple
156Functorsimple
157FutureInFutureTensesimple
158FutureInPastTensesimple
159FuturePerfectTensesimple
160FutureTensesimple
161GenderPropertysimple
162GeneralNumbersimple
163GeneticTaxonsimple
164GenitiveCasesimple
165GeographicTaxonsimple
166Gerundsimple
167GlottalMovementPropertysimple
168GlottalStricturePropertysimple
169GlottalTimingPropertysimple
170Glyphsimple
171GrammarUnitcomplex/closed
172Graphemesimple
173GreaterPaucalNumbersimple
174GreaterPluralNumbersimple
175Groupsimple
176HabitualAspectsimple
177HearsayEvidentialitysimple
178HeightPropertysimple
179HesternalPastTensesimple
180Highsimple
181HodiernalFutureTensesimple
182HodiernalPastTensesimple
183HortatoryForcesimple
184HumanGendersimple
185HumanLanguageVarietycomplex/closed
186IllativeCasesimple
187ImmediateFutureTensesimple
188ImmediatePastTensesimple
189ImperativeForcesimple
190ImperfectiveAspectsimple
191ImpersonalPassiveVoicesimple
192InablativeCasesimple
193InallativeCasesimple
194InanimateGendersimple
195InceptiveAspectsimple
196IncorporatingAntipassiveVoicesimple
197IndefiniteArticlesimple
198IndefinitePronounsimple
199IndicativeMoodsimple
200IndirectEvidentialitysimple
201InessiveCasesimple
202InferentialEvidentialitysimple
203Infixsimple
204InflectionalMorphemesimple
205InformationalForcesimple
206InstrumentalCasesimple
207InterablativeCasesimple
208InterallativeCasesimple
209InteressiveCasesimple
210Interjectionsimple
211InterlativeCasesimple
212InterlinearGlossedTextsimple
213InterminativeCasesimple
214InterrogativeForcesimple
215InterrogativeOperatorsimple
216InterrogativeProformsimple
217InterterminativeCasesimple
218IntertranslativeCasesimple
219IntransitiveVerbsimple
220Intransitivizersimple
221IntranslativeCasesimple
222InverseVoicesimple
223IrrealisMoodsimple
224Isolatesimple
225IterativeAspectsimple
226JussiveForcesimple
227LabialPropertysimple
228Laminalsimple
229Languagesimple
230LanguageFamilysimple
231LanguageStocksimple
232LanguageSubfamilysimple
233LaryngealPropertysimple
234LateralEscapesimple
235LateralPropertysimple
236LativeCasesimple
237LexicalItemsimple
238LexicalizedConceptsimple
239Lexiconsimple
240Ligaturesimple
241LinguisticDataStructurecomplex/closed
242LinguisticExpressioncomplex/open
243LinguisticPropertycomplex/open
244LinguisticSignsimple
245LinguisticSystemcomplex/open
246LinguisticTaxonsimple
247LinguisticUnitcomplex/open
248LivingVarietysimple
249LocativeCasesimple
250LocativePassiveVoicesimple
251Lowsimple
252MainClausesimple
253MalefactiveCasesimple
254MannerPropertysimple
255MasculineGendersimple
256MentalAbilitiveModalitysimple
257Midsimple
258MinusATRsimple
259MinusClicksimple
260MinusFortissimple
261MinusNasalsimple
262Modalsimple
263ModalVoicesimple
264ModalityPropertysimple
265MoodPropertysimple
266Morasimple
267Morphemesimple
268MorphosemanticPropertycomplex/closed
269MorphosyntacticPropertycomplex/closed
270MultalNumbersimple
271MultiplicativeNumeralsimple
272NasalityPropertysimple
273NearFutureTensesimple
274NearlyExtinctVarietysimple
275NecessitativePassiveVoicesimple
276NecessityModalitysimple
277NegationOperatorsimple
278NegativePolaritysimple
279NeuterGendersimple
280Nominalsimple
281NominalClassifiersimple
282NominalParticlesimple
283Nominalizersimple
284NominativeCasesimple
285NonAbsolutiveAntipassiveVoicesimple
286NonFutureTensesimple
287NonPastTensesimple
288NonProgressiveAspectsimple
289NonPromotionalInverseVoicesimple
290Nounsimple
291NounClassifiersimple
292NounPhrasesimple
293NucleonicMiddleVoicesimple
294NumberPropertysimple
295Numeralsimple
296NumeralClassifiersimple
297Objectcomplex/open
298ObligativeModalitysimple
299ObliqueCasesimple
300ObliquePassiveVoicesimple
301OptativeMoodsimple
302OrdinalNumeralsimple
303OrthographicPartsimple
304OrthographicPhrasesimple
305OrthographicSentencesimple
306OrthographicSystemsimple
307OrthographicWordsimple
308OtherSourceEvidentialitysimple
309OtherThanVisualEvidentialitysimple
310Paragraphsimple
311PartOfSpeechPropertycomplex/closed
312Participlesimple
313Particlesimple
314PartitiveCasesimple
315PartitiveNumeralsimple
316PassiveVoicesimple
317PastInPastTensesimple
318PastPerfectTensesimple
319PastTensesimple
320PaucalNumbersimple
321PejorativeEvaluativesimple
322PerfectTensesimple
323PerfectiveAspectsimple
324PerlativeCasesimple
325PermissiveModalitysimple
326PersonPropertysimple
327PersonalPassiveVoicesimple
328PersonalPronounsimple
329PhasalAspectsimple
330Phonemesimple
331PhoneticPropertycomplex/closed
332PhonologicalPropertysimple
333PhonologicalSystemsimple
334Phrasesimple
335PhysicalAbilitiveModalitysimple
336PlacePropertysimple
337PlainAdjectivesimple
338PlainMiddleVoicesimple
339PluralNumbersimple
340PlusATRsimple
341PlusClicksimple
342PlusFortissimple
343PlusNasalsimple
344PolarityPropertysimple
345PoliticalTaxonsimple
346PositivePolaritysimple
347PossessedCasesimple
348PossessivePronounsimple
349PossibilityModalitysimple
350PostHodiernalFutureTensesimple
351Postalveolarsimple
352Postpositionsimple
353PragmaticInverseVoicesimple
354PreHodiernalPastTensesimple
355Predicatorsimple
356PreferredEvaluativesimple
357Prefixsimple
358Prenounsimple
359Prepositionsimple
360PresentPerfectTensesimple
361PresentTensesimple
362Preverbsimple
363ProFormsimple
364ProVerbsimple
365Proadjectivesimple
366Proadverbsimple
367Processsimple
368Processivesimple
369Procliticsimple
370ProgressiveAspectsimple
371ProgressivePassiveVoicesimple
372ProhibitiveMoodsimple
373PromotionalInverseVoicesimple
374Pronominalsimple
375ProperNounsimple
376Protrudedsimple
377PulmonicPropertysimple
378QuantificationalAspectsimple
379Quantifiersimple
380RadicalPropertysimple
381RealisMoodsimple
382RecentPastTensesimple
383ReciprocalMiddleVoicesimple
384ReciprocalPronounsimple
385ReferentialVoicesimple
386ReflexiveMiddleVoicesimple
387ReflexivePassiveVoicesimple
388ReflexivePronounsimple
389RelativeFutureTensesimple
390RelativePastTensesimple
391RelativePresentTensesimple
392RelativePronounsimple
393Relativizersimple
394RemoteFutureTensesimple
395RemotePastTensesimple
396Repetitivesimple
397Retractedsimple
398RomanNumeralGendersimple
399Rootsimple
400SaliencePropertysimple
401SecondHandEvidentialitysimple
402SecondLanguageOnlyVarietysimple
403SecondPersonsimple
404Segmentsimple
405SemanticAssignmentSystemsimple
406SemanticInverseVoicesimple
407SemanticPropertysimple
408SemanticUnitcomplex/closed
409SemelfactiveAspectsimple
410SignedLanguagesimple
411SignedLinguisticExpressionsimple
412SimpleFutureTensesimple
413SimplePastTensesimple
414SimplePresentTensesimple
415SimpleSpecificationsimple
416SimultaneousAspectsimple
417SingularNumbersimple
418SizePropertysimple
419SpeculativeForcesimple
420SpokenLanguagesimple
421SpokenLinguisticExpressionsimple
422Stemsimple
423StillTensesimple
424Stopsimple
425StricturePropertysimple
426StructuralDescriptionsimple
427SubablativeCasesimple
428SuballativeCasesimple
429SubessiveCasesimple
430SubjunctiveMoodsimple
431Sublaminalsimple
432SublativeCasesimple
433SubordinateClausesimple
434SubordinatingConnectivesimple
435Substantivesimple
436SubterminativeCasesimple
437SubtranslativeCasesimple
438Suffixsimple
439SuperablativeCasesimple
440SuperallativeCasesimple
441SuperessiveCasesimple
442SuperlativeAdjectivesimple
443SuperlativeCasesimple
444SuperterminativeCasesimple
445SupertranslativeCasesimple
446SupraLaryngealPropertysimple
447Suprasegmentalsimple
448Syllablesimple
449SyntacticArgumentsimple
450SyntacticConstructionsimple
451SyntacticUnitsimple
452SyntacticWordsimple
453Tapsimple
454Taxoncomplex/closed
455TensePropertysimple
456Termsimple
457TerminativeAspectsimple
458TerminativeCasesimple
459Termsetsimple
460TertiaryPredicatorsimple
461Thingcomplex/open
462ThirdPersonsimple
463ThirdPersonObviativesimple
464ThirdPersonProximativesimple
465TimitiveMoodsimple
466Tonemesimple
467TransitiveVerbsimple
468Transitivizersimple
469TranslativeCasesimple
470TrialNumbersimple
471Trillsimple
472TrillPropertysimple
473UnaryPredicatorsimple
474Unaspiratedsimple
475UnattestedVarietysimple
476VegetableGendersimple
477VelaricPropertysimple
478VerbPhrasesimple
479Verbalsimple
480VerbalAdjectivesimple
481VerbalParticlesimple
482Verbalizersimple
483Versivesimple
484VisualEvidentialitysimple
485VocativeCasesimple
486VoicePropertysimple
487Voicedsimple
488Voicelesssimple
489VoicingPropertysimple
490VolitiveForcesimple
491Vowelsimple
492WeakObligativeModalitysimple
493WrittenLanguagesimple
494WrittenLinguisticExpressioncomplex/closed
495ZeroPlacePredicatorsimple