Subcat-LMF


index

Complementizer

Complementizer; admitted name
Complementizer; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Complementizer; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3124

Identifier: Complementizer   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: SubordinatingConnective

Definition: A complementizer is a connective which marks a complement clause [Crystal 1997: 75].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 75]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinatingConnective. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3124 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Determiner

Determiner; admitted name
Determiner; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Determiner; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3159

Identifier: Determiner   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A Determiner is a part of speech whose members belong to a class of noun modifiers and express the reference, including quantity, of a noun [Crystal 1997: 112].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 112]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3159 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Expletive

Expletive; admitted name
Expletive; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Expletive; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3187

Identifier: Expletive   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: An expletive (also known as a dummy word) is a part of speech whose members have no meaning, but complete a sentence to make it grammatical [Crystal 1997: 127].
Source: [Crystal 1997: 127]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3187 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Participle

Participle; admitted name
Participle; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Participle; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3371

Identifier: Participle   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: A participle is a word which participates as both a verb (by showing tense) and as an adjective (by showing adjectival inflection). In modern usage, the term refers to a non-finite part of the verb other than the infinitive (independent of the function of these forms in the sentence). [Bauer 2004: 82]
Source: [Bauer 2004: 82]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PartOfSpeechProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3371 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PastTense

PastTense; admitted name
PastTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PastTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3378

Identifier: PastTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Feature assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as anterior to the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'past', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'anterior'. The anterior temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from Reichenbach (1947), who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of an anterior temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead at the moment of speech. The event time is still anterior to the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the event and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have read this book, I have seen John --- hence the interpretation that the event has an effect or is in some way still relevant at the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' anterior meaning and labelled simply as Past. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Past Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the anterior temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal relationships or aspectual and/or modal meanings. For example, when the usage of the Past Tense value is restricted to a semantically defined domain, it is conventional to add a further qualification to the label of the Past Tense value (e.g. Past Imperfective --- when the anterior temporal relationship is necessarily combined with an aspectual meaning of the Imperfective Aspect value, and grammaticalised as a single [Tense-Aspect-Mood (TAM)] category in the language). [Kibort 2008c: 4]
Source: [Kibort 2008c: 4]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3378 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


PresentTense

PresentTense; admitted name
PresentTense; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/PresentTense; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3421

Identifier: PresentTense   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: TenseProperty

Definition: A value of Tense Property assigned to the designated element in the clause when the meaning selected for the clause is that intended to locate the event spoken about as simultaneous with the deictic centre of the utterance. Most commonly, this tense meaning is referred to as 'present', because in absolute tense systems the deictic centre is the moment of speech. However, in relative tense systems, where the deictic centre can be moved to any point on the time line, it is more appropriate to refer to this temporal relation as 'simultaneous'. It is important to note --- for all tense values, but in particular for the Present Tense --- that the 'times' which are used to locate the event, the deictic centre, and the reference point, may or may not be 'points' on the time line. Conventionally, these concepts are considered neutral with regard to whether they are points or intervals of time longer than a point. In a formal model of tense meanings they could, for example, be represented as sets (of points): in order to capture temporal distinctions, the notion of an event being 'simultaneous with the moment of speech', may be understood as (the set of) event time (points) and (the set of) speech time (points) having a non-empty intersection. Hence, this semantic model of the Present Tense value may include the interpretation of the present as 'universal' or 'generic'. The simultaneous temporal relation may obtain either in 'simple' or 'perfect' contexts. Modelling of this distinction originates from [Reichenbach 1947], who suggested using a third point in time, 'reference point', to capture all possible tense distinctions. In all 'simple' temporal relations, the reference point coincides with the location of the event spoken about. 'Perfect' tense meanings are created when the reference point is separated and moved away from the event time, thus altering the viewing of the temporal location of the event even though the event's actual location with respect to the deictic centre remains the same. A common instance of a simultaneous temporal relationship obtaining in a 'perfect' context occurs when the reference point is moved away from the event time and located instead before the moment of speech. The event time is still simultaneous with the moment of speech, but it is viewed against a stretch of time which began at the reference point and continues up to the moment of speech --- e.g. the English I have lived here [for ten years] --- hence the interpretation that the event which began in the past extends up to the moment of speech. In some languages (e.g. English) this tense meaning is labelled as (one of the uses of the) Present Perfect, in others (e.g. Polish) this meaning may be collapsed with the 'simple' simultaneous meaning and labelled simply as Present. Typically, for a tense value to be labelled as Present Tense, the tense meaning has to minimally express the simultaneous temporal relationship, although it may additionally express other temporal, aspectual, or modal meanings. [Kibort 2008c: 4-5]
Source: [Reichenbach 1947; Kibort 2008c: 4-5]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3421 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


SubordinateClause

SubordinateClause; admitted name
SubordinateClause; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/SubordinateClause; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3496

Identifier: SubordinateClause   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Is a: Clause

Definition: A clause which does not constitute a complete sentence in itself, but must be connected with or attached to an independent clause. [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]
Source: [Pei and Gaynor 1980: 206]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/Clause. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3496 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


TenseProperty

TenseProperty; admitted name
TenseProperty; Source: http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/TenseProperty; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3519

Identifier: TenseProperty   Type: simple   Origin: GOLD (General Ontology for Linguistic Description): for the latest version see http://linguistics-ontology.org   Profile: undecided

Definition: Following [Comrie 1985: vii], we take tense to be the grammaticalisation of location in time. Tense Property is assigned to clauses on the basis of semantics: a tense value is selected for the clause from the range of tense values available in the given language. Tense Property is typically realised on the verb, but it may be found expressed multiply on different elements in the same clause. For example, tense may be found on more than one element of the verbal complex (e.g. in Kayardild [Evans 2003] or Paamese [Crowley 2002: 68], or on verbs as well as on certain spatial and temporal adverbs and certain prepositions in the same clause (e.g. in Malagasy [Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367], [Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]. In the given language, the values of the Tense Property are assigned to the designated elements as a consequence of semantic choice, and all the available options of particular tense values expressing particular tense meanings can be described with a Tense Assignment System for that language. Since no languages have been found for which tense values are assigned by a Tense Distribution System (i.e. contextually, through agreement or government), Tense Property is not a Morphosyntactic Property. Instead, it is a Morphosemantic Property only.
Source: [Comrie 1985: vii; Evans 2003; Crowley 2002: 68; Randriamasimanana 1981: 355-367; Keenan and Polinsky 1998: 566-567]

Note: This concept is part of the General Ontology for Linguistic Description (GOLD). It is a child concept of http://purl.org/linguistics/gold/MorphosemanticProperty. For other relationships among the concepts see: http://linguistics-ontology.org/gold.

Note: To make suggestions with regard to the entire ontology or individual concepts, please visit the GOLD Community website at http://linguistics-ontology.org.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3519 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


adjective phrase

adjective phrase; standardized name
AP; admitted name
adjectival phrase; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2258

Identifier: adjectivePhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by an adjective
Source:

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2258 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


adverb phrase

adverb phrase; standardized name
RP; admitted name
adverbial phrase; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2259

Identifier: adverbPhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by an adverb
Source:

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2259 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


adverbial Complement

adverbial Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4639

Identifier: adverbialComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: An adverbial that is lexically governed by a verb (or a noun or adjective) and that is obligatory.
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 7.2f

Example: Somebody put the plate on the table. (vs. *Somebody put the plate.)
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 7.2f

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4639 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


auxiliary

auxiliary; standardized name
auxiliary; Source: MAF; data element name
auxiliary verb; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1244

Identifier: auxiliary   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: verb

Definition: Part of speech referring to the set of verbs, subordinate to the main lexical verb which help to make distinction in mood, aspect, voice etc.
Source: Crystal 2003

Example: Be
Source:

Note: The definition could be refined stylistically: Part of speech referring to the set of verbs used as subordinates to the main lexical verb which help to distinguish mood, aspect, voice etc. One could then cite the source as "Based on Crystal 2003".

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1244 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


bare Infinitive

bare Infinitive; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4163

Identifier: bareInfinitive   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: The non-finite verb form infinitive used without "to", as opposed to an infinitive used with "to". The German equivalent is an infinitive used without "zu".
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: English: He saw her come.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: German: Wir sahen ihn kommen.
Source:

Explanation: The verbs taking the bare infinitive in the active are the verbs of perception, e.g. hear, see, watch
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4163 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


be

be; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1246

Identifier: be   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Verb used to link the subject of a sentence and its noun or adjective complement or complementing phrase in certain languages. This verb could be used also to form the passive voice.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=be -> 4)

Example: I am happy !
Source: zeus.inalf.fr Base

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1246 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


case

case; standardized name
case; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2720

Identifier: case   Type: complex/closed   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Case [case] is a grammatical category appropriate for inflecting grammatical classes displaying nominal or adjectival features, as well as for prepositions where case is understood as a governed case.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2720 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


accusative case

accusative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2724

Identifier: acc   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Accusative [acc] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for structural objects.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2724 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


dative case

dative case; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2723

Identifier: dat   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Dative [dat] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for oblique objects and experiencers.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2723 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


genitive case

genitive case; standardized name
genitive case; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2722

Identifier: gen   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Genitive [gen] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for possessors, partitives, non-inherent case arguments of gerunds and structural objects under sentential negation.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2722 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


nominative case

nominative case; admitted name
nominative; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2004). The IPI PAN Corpus: Preliminary version. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw.; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2721

Identifier: nom   Type: simple   Origin: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.   Profile: undecided

Definition: Nominative [nom] is a value of the grammatical category of case paradigmatically appropriate for subjects.
Source: [based on] Urbańczyk, S., ed. (1992). Encyklopedia języka polskiego. Ossolineum, Wrocław.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2721 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, Polish


complement

complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1257

Identifier: complement   Type: complex/open   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: - A noun phrase that follows a copula or similar verb, as for example an idiot in the sentence He is an idiot. - A clause that serves as the subject or direct object of a verb or the direct object of a preposition, as for example that he would be early in the sentence I hoped that he would be early.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=complement
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1257 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


declarative clause

declarative clause; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2300

Identifier: declarativeClause   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: clause referring to the expression of a statement
Source:
Note: Usually the term is seen in contrast to interrogative and imperative

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2300 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


direct object

direct object; admitted name
direct object; Source: MAF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1274

Identifier: directObject   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: A noun, pronoun, or noun phrase whose referent receives the direct action of a verb.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=direct+object

Example: A book is the direct object in the sentence ' They bought Anne a book'.
Source: csli-publications.stanford.edu/LFG/4/lee/lfg99-lee.html

Explanation: A direct object is a grammatical relation that exhibits a combination of certain independent syntactic properties, such as the following: - The usual grammatical characteristics of the patient of typically transitive verbs - A particular case marking - A particular clause position - The conditioning of an agreement affix on the verb - The capability of becoming the clause subject in passivization - The capability of reflexivization
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsADirectObject.htm

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1274 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


grammatical function

grammatical function; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1296

Identifier: grammaticalFunction   Type: complex/closed   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: [Needs to be finalized]
Source: MAF

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1296 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


grammatical number

grammatical number; preferred name
grammatical number; Source: ISO 30042; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-251

Identifier: grammaticalNumber   Type: complex/closed   Origin: ISO 30042   Profile: Terminology

Definition: In many languages, the grammatical distinction that indicates the number of objects referred to by the term or word.
Source: ISO12620

Example: Example 1: The child eats his dinner. The children eat their dinner. singular: -- child is a singular noun child is a third person singular verb plural: -- children is a plural noun eat is a third person plural verb Example 2: mass noun: -- smoke, water, food.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

Explanation: In situations where the singular and the plural of a term do not necessarily designate the same concept, the singular and plural should be reported in separate entries in order to retain the concept-orientation of the database.
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text); 1951

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-251 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


plural

plural; preferred name
plural; Source: ISO 12620:1999; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-253

Identifier: plural   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 12620:1999   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The form of a term or word (usually of a noun) used to designate more than one object.
Source: ISO12620

Example: boys
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-253 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


singular

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-252

Identifier: singular   Type: simple   Origin: ?   Profile: Terminology

Definition: The form of a term or word (usually of a noun) used to designate one object.
Source: ISO12620

Example: boy
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

Explanation: ...
Source: Mitre; TEI(green text)

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-252 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


have

have; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1299

Identifier: have   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: The verb have as an auxiliary.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnAuxiliaryVerb.htm

Example: I have eaten
Source: www.atilf.inalf.fr Tlfi, NOMBRE

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1299 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


indefinite determiner

indefinite determiner; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1307

Identifier: indefiniteDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner not capable of identification.
Source: Gil Francopoulo
Note: MAF

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1307 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French


ing Form

ing Form; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4108

Identifier: ingForm   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Morphosyntax

Definition: English verb forms ending in the inflectional suffix `-ing'.
Source: EAGLES recommendations on morphosyntax

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4108 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


label

label; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1857

Identifier: label   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Text attached to an element
Source: Gil Francopoulo

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1857 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


lexeme

lexeme; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1325

Identifier: lexeme   Type: complex/open   Origin: ?   Profile: Morphosyntax

Definition: Minimal unit of language which : has a semantic interpretation and embodies a distinct cultural concept.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsALexeme.htm
Note: In LMF, a lexeme is not a Lexical Entry. A lexeme is a pair (Lexical Entry / Sense).

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1325 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


non Predicative Adjective

non Predicative Adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4618

Identifier: nonPredicativeAdjective   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Adjectives that cannot be predicative.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 13.48 (Non-predicative adjectives)

Example: English: "mere" is a nonPredicativeAdjective, e.g. The mere mention. vs. *The mention is mere.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 13.48 (Non-predicative adjectives)

Example: German: "morgig" is a nonPredicativeAdjective, e.g. der morgige Besuch vs. *der Besuch ist morgig
Source: Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, p. 314

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noun phrase

noun phrase; standardized name
NP; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2256

Identifier: nounPhrase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by a noun
Source:

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Language sections: English, French


object Complement

object Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4625

Identifier: objectComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A complement that is used to predicate a description of the direct object.
Source: Adapted from http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnObjectComplement.htm

Example: They made him the chairman.
Source: Adapted from http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAnObjectComplement.htm

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object Control

object Control; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4189

Identifier: objectControl   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject, a direct object and an infinitival complement with to: for object control verbs, the direct object in the main clause is semantically an argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: persuade is an object control verb, e.g. We persuaded him to stay.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, objectControl is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

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object Raising

object Raising; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4190

Identifier: objectRaising   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject, a direct object and an infinitival complement with to: for object raising verbs, the direct object in the main clause is no semantic argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: believe is an object raising verb, e.g. They believe him to be an informant.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, objectRaising is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

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optional Syntactic Argument

optional Syntactic Argument; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4622

Identifier: optionalSyntacticArgument   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: An optionalSyntacticArgument is a complement of a verb (or a noun or an adjective) that can be omitted.
Source: adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node53.html#4t6

Example: In the example "She paid the bill to her mother", the argument "the bill" is not an optionalSyntacticArgument, because it cannot be omitted: *She paid to her mother
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node53.html#4t6

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possessive determiner

possessive determiner; standardized name
possessive adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1357

Identifier: possessiveDeterminer   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: determiner

Definition: Determiner that expresses ownership.
Source: MAF

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Language sections: English, French


postpositive Adjective

postpositive Adjective; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4619

Identifier: postpositiveAdjective   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: Adjectives that have to be in postposition ( i.e. following the noun or pronoun they modify) in order to express a particular sense. These adjectives have a different sense, if they occur attributively or predicatively.
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 5.18 (Postpositive)

Example: "proper" in the sense "as strictly defined" is a postpositiveAdjective, e.g. the City of London proper
Source: Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 5.18 (Postpositive)

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predicative adjective

predicative adjective; admitted name
predicative adjective; Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2710

Identifier: adjc   Type: complex/open   Origin: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.   Profile: undecided

Definition: non-inflecting adjectival class [adjc] of one-form lexemes consisting of forms which may only be used in predicative contexts (adjc)4, e.g., zdrów ‘healthy’ (cf. On wydaje się zdrów ‘He seems healthy’, but not *zdrów człowiek ‘healthy man’) or ciekaw ‘curious’ (e.g., Jestem ciekaw ‘I am curious’, but not *ciekaw człowiek ‘curious man’).
Source: Przepiórkowski, A. (2009). A comparison of two morphosyntactic tagsets of Polish. In Proceedings of the Mondilex workshop in Warsaw, June 2009.
Note: the definition was edited a little with respect to the original one

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Language sections: English, Polish

Data type: string


preposition

preposition; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1366

Identifier: preposition   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: adposition

Definition: Adposition placed at the beginning of a noun phrase.
Source: MAF
Note: Usually, a preposition indicates position, direction, time or an abstract relation.

Example: into the woods
Source: www.atilf.fr AFFIXE

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Language sections: English, French


preposition Type

preposition Type; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4621

Identifier: prepositionType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A node in a hierarchy of prepositions.
Source: Adapted from Karin Kipper, VERBNET: A BROAD-COVERAGE, COMPREHENSIVE VERB LEXICON. PhD Thesis, 2005.

Example: In the preposition hierarchy used in VerbNet, the prepositionType "dir" is subordinated to the prepositionType "path"; the prepositionType "dir" comprises prepositions such as across, along, around.
Source: Karin Kipper, VERBNET: A BROAD-COVERAGE, COMPREHENSIVE VERB LEXICON. PhD Thesis, 2005, p. 37 f.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4621 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


prepositional Complement

prepositional Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4638

Identifier: prepositionalComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: The complement of a verb (noun, adjective) that is realized as a prepositional phrase and that can be questioned by a pronominal question, but not by an adverbial question. Verbs that take prepositional complements are called prepositional verbs in English, see Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19. In German, prepositional complements are often called "Präpositionalobjekt", see Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19 and from Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5

Example: English: He insisted on staying. (*Where did he insist? vs. What did he insist on?)
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 12.19

Example: German: Er besteht auf einer Neuausrichtung. (*Wo besteht er? vs. Worauf besteht er?)
Source: Adapted from Helbig, Buscha (1996): Deutsche Grammatik, 13.3.3.5

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prepositional phrase

prepositional phrase; standardized name
PP; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2257

Identifier: prepositionalPhrase   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase beginning by one or several prepositions and a complement such as a noun phrase
Source:

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2257 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


reflexive personal pronoun

reflexive personal pronoun; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3014

Identifier: reflexivePersonalPronoun   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Morphosyntax

Is a: personal pronoun

Definition: personal pronoun which is reflexive
Source: STTS

Example: "sich" in German
Source: STTS

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Language sections: English, French


subcategorization Frame Set

subcategorization Frame Set; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4620

Identifier: subcategorizationFrameSet   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A set of subcategorization frames that groups different syntactic uses ("surface alternations") associated with the same deep structure or with the same meaning. A set of related subcategorization frames, i.e. different surface alternations explicitly linked.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node36.html#SECTION00516000000000000000

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4620 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subject

subject; admitted name
subject; Source: Member of MAF DCS; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1391

Identifier: subject   Type: simple   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profile: Syntax

Definition: A word, phrase, or formal expression about which something is predicated or stated in a sentence.
Source: www.wordreference.com/English/definition.asp?en=subject

Example: The cat in the sentence: The cat catches mice.
Source: www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsAStem.htm

Note: This statement is patently false!! The noun or pronoun that, with all its modifiers, immediately precedes the verb. He is defined entirely in terms of position. Not true in English: Here is the dog. Did you see him? I did, and so did my father. In German: Den Hund habe ich gestern gesehen. www.southwestern.edu/~carlg/Latin_Web/glossary.html Suggested definition: The person or thing that a sentence is about, that is performing an action, or being described. Source: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_subject_of_a_sentence

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Language sections: English, French


subject Complement

subject Complement; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4624

Identifier: subjectComplement   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A subject complement is a complement that is used to predicate a description of the subject of a clause.
Source: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASubjectComplement.htm

Example: He became a teacher.
Source: Adapted from Quirk et al. (1972): A Grammar of Contemporary English, 2.4

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subject Control

subject Control; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4187

Identifier: subjectControl   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject and an infinitival complement with to: for subject control verbs, the subject phrase of the main clause is semantically an argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: try is a subject control verb, e.g. He tried to exercise.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, subjectControl is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4187 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subject Raising

subject Raising; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4188

Identifier: subjectRaising   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: A lexical property of verbs that take a subject and an infinitival complement with to: for subject raising verbs, the subject phrase of the main clause is no semantic argument of the verb.
Source: EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Example: seem is a subject raising verb, e.g. He seems to sleep.
Source: http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html

Note: In UBY, subjectRaising is considered a syntacticProperty, as suggested by the EGALES guidelines, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node57.html: "Since many theories require a syntactic distinction between control and raising verbs, it is proposed that the distinction between control and raising verbs is obligatorily indicated in the syntactic representation in the EAGLES standard."

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4188 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


syntacticCategory

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1506

Identifier: syntacticCategory   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: A syntactic category is a set of words and/or phrases in a language which share a significant number of common characteristics. The classification is based on similar structure and sameness of distribution (the structural relationships between these elements and other items in a larger grammatical structure), and not on meaning.
Source: http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticTerms/WhatIsASyntacticCategory.htm
Note: In generative grammar, a syntactic category is symbolized by a node label in a constituent structure tree.

Example: "Le petit chat mange la souris dans la salle de bain" : "le petit chat", "mange la souris", "la souris", "dans la salle de bain", "la salle de bain" are syntactic constituents.
Source: Susanne Salmon-Alt

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1506 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


that Type

that Type; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4623

Identifier: thatType   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: undecided

Definition: A subordinate clause introduced by "that".
Source: Adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node40.html#SECTION00522000000000000000

Explanation: The specification of the clausal complement of particular verbs (or nouns, adjectives) must thus be completed with restricting features, such as thatType.
Source: Adapted from EAGLES, see http://www.ilc.cnr.it/EAGLES96/synlex/node40.html#SECTION00522000000000000000

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toInfinitive

toInfinitive; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4162

Identifier: toInfinitive   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Lexical Resources

Definition: The non-finite verb form infinitive used with "to", as opposed to an infinitive used without "to". The German equivalent of "to" is "zu"; depending on the verb, "zu" can either precede the infinitive as in English or "zu" can be incorporated into the infinitive.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: English: He likes to talk.
Source: Randolph Quirk et al., A grammar of Contemporary English (Longman)

Example: German: Wir freuen uns, ihn zu sehen.
Source: Helbig, Buscha, Deutsche Grammatik (Langenscheidt)

Example: German: Wir freuen uns, ihn abzuholen. (incorporated "zu")
Source:

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verb form mood

verb form mood; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1427

Identifier: verbFormMood   Type: complex/closed   Origin: Member of MAF DCS   Profiles: Morphosyntax, undecided

Definition: One of a set of distinctive forms that are used to signal modality. Modality is a facet of illocutionary point or general intent of a speaker, or a speaker's degree of commitment to the expressed proposition's believability, obligatoriness, desirability or reality.
Source: ISO12620

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1427 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Linguistic sections: English, French

Data type: string


verb phrase

verb phrase; standardized name
VP; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2255

Identifier: verbPhrase   Type: simple   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: phrase headed by a verb
Source:

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Language sections: English, French


wh type

wh type; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2296

Identifier: whType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: property for a clause beginning by a question word
Source:
Note: in English, "who is he ?" is a whType question

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2296 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


yes no type

yes no type; standardized name
polar type; admitted name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2297

Identifier: yesNoType   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profile: Syntax

Definition: property for a clause where only a positive or a negative answer or position are possible
Source:
Note: in English, "Are you coming?" is a yesNoType question

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2297 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


Nametype
1Complementizersimple
2Determinersimple
3Expletivesimple
4Participlesimple
5PastTensesimple
6PresentTensesimple
7SubordinateClausesimple
8TensePropertysimple
9accusative casesimple
10adjective phrasecomplex/open
11adverb phrasecomplex/open
12adverbial Complementsimple
13auxiliarysimple
14bare Infinitivesimple
15besimple
16casecomplex/closed
17complementcomplex/open
18dative casesimple
19declarative clausecomplex/open
20direct objectsimple
21genitive casesimple
22grammatical functioncomplex/closed
23grammatical numbercomplex/closed
24havesimple
25indefinite determinersimple
26ing Formsimple
27labelcomplex/open
28lexemecomplex/open
29nominative casesimple
30non Predicative Adjectivesimple
31noun phrasesimple
32object Complementsimple
33object Controlsimple
34object Raisingsimple
35optional Syntactic Argumentsimple
36pluralsimple
37possessive determinersimple
38postpositive Adjectivesimple
39predicative adjectivecomplex/open
40prepositionsimple
41preposition Typecomplex/open
42prepositional Complementsimple
43prepositional phrasecomplex/open
44reflexive personal pronounsimple
45singularsimple
46subcategorization Frame Setsimple
47subjectsimple
48subject Complementsimple
49subject Controlsimple
50subject Raisingsimple
51syntacticCategorycomplex/open
52that Typesimple
53toInfinitivesimple
54verb form moodcomplex/closed
55verb phrasesimple
56wh typecomplex/open
57yes no typecomplex/open