profile: Translation


index

addition

addition; preferred name
ADD; admitted name
A; admitted name
add; admitted name
addition; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2806

Identifier: addition   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profile: Translation

Definition: translation error that occurs when the translator introduces superfluous information or stylistic effects
Source: ATA Framework

Note: In an XML markup environment, the use of ADD as a short form for "addition" may be preferable to "A" in order to avoid possible confusion with the standard HTML/SGML tag <a>.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2806 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


ambiguity

ambiguity; preferred name
AMB; admitted name
amb; admitted name
ambiguity; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
AMB; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2807

Identifier: ambiguity   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profile: Translation

Definition: translation error that occurs when either the source or target text segment allows for more than one semantic interpretation, where its counterpart in the other language does not
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2807 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


capitalization

capitalization; preferred name
c; admitted name
C; admitted name
capitalization; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2808

Identifier: capitalization   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framwork   Profiles: Translation, Syntax

Definition: translation error that occurs when the conventions of the target language concerning upper and lower case usage are not followed
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2808 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


cohesion

cohesion; preferred name
cohesion; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
COH; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2815

Identifier: cohesion   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profiles: Semantic Content Representation, Translation

Definition: a translation error that occurs when a text is hard to follow because of inconsistent use of terminology, misuse of pronouns, inappropriate conjunctions, or other structural errors
Source: ATA Framework

Explanation: Cohesion is the network of lexical, grammatical, and other relations which provide formal links between various parts of a text. These links assist the reader in navigating within the text. Although cohesion is a feature of the text as a whole, graders will mark an error for the individual element that disrupts the cohesion.
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2815 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, German

Data type: string


cross-reference gloss (English)

cross-reference gloss (English); admitted name
cross-reference gloss (English); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
ce; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3689

Identifier: cross-reference_gloss_English   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Definition: Gives the English gloss(es) for the vernacular lexeme referenced by the preceding cf field.
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3689 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


cross-reference gloss (national)

cross-reference gloss (national); admitted name
cross-reference gloss (national); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
cn; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3691

Identifier: cross-reference_gloss_national   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Translation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Resources

Definition: Gives the national language gloss(es) for the vernacular lexeme referenced by the preceding cf field.
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3691 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


cross-reference gloss (regional)

cross-reference gloss (regional); admitted name
cross-reference gloss (regional); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
cr; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3692

Identifier: cross-reference_gloss_regional   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Resources, Translation

Definition: Gives the regional language gloss(es) for the vernacular lexeme referenced by the preceding cf field.
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3692 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


diacritical mark

diacritical mark; preferred name
accent; admitted name
D; admitted name
diacritical mark; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
accent; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
D; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2825

Identifier: diacriticalMark   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profile: Translation

Definition: a translation error that occurs when the target language missing diacritical marks obscure meaning (sense), the error is more serious.
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2825 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


etymology gloss (English)

etymology gloss (English); admitted name
etymology gloss (English); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
eg; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3698

Identifier: etymology_gloss_English   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Definition: The published gloss for the etymological reference is given here.
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3698 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


example free translation (English)

example free translation (English); admitted name
example free translation (English); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
xe; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3775

Identifier: example_free_translation_English   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Translation, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics

Definition: English translation of the example sentence given in the xv field. Use capitalization and punctuation as needed.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3775 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


example free translation (national)

example free translation (national); admitted name
example free translation (national); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
xn; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3776

Identifier: example_free_translation_national   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Translation, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics

Definition: National language translation of the example sentence given in the xv field. Use capitalization and punctuation as needed.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3776 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


example free translation (regional)

example free translation (regional); admitted name
example free translation (regional); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
xr; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3777

Identifier: example_free_translation_regional   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Translation, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics

Definition: Regional language translation of the example sentence given in the xv field. Use capitalization and punctuation as needed.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3777 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


faux ami

faux ami; standardized name
false friend; admitted name
FA; admitted name
faux amis; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
false friend; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
FA; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2832

Identifier: fauxAmi   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profile: Translation

Definition: a translation error that occurs when words of similar form but dissimilar meaning across the language pair are confused
Source: ATA Framework

Explanation: Faux amis, also known as false friends, are words in two or more languages that probably are derived from similar roots and that have very similar or identical forms, but that have different meanings, at least in some contexts.
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-2832 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


gloss (English)

gloss (English); admitted name
gloss (English); Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
ge; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3707

Identifier: gloss_English   Type: complex/open   Origin: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Morphosyntax, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Definition: Intended for interlinear morpheme-level glossing. Join multi-word glosses with (_), e.g. wild_boar; use (space semicolon space) for multiple glosses, e.g. hut ; house ; shack. Used for reversing the dictionary if an e field is not present (or is present but empty); also as an English definition in a formatted dictionary if there is no de field (or it is present but empty).
Source: Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3707 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


gloss (national)

gloss (national); admitted name
gloss (national); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
gn; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3711

Identifier: gloss_national   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Terminology, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics, Translation

Definition: Intended for interlinear morpheme-level glossing. Join multi-word glosses with (_), e.g. wild_boar; use (space semicolon space) for multiple glosses, e.g. hut ; house ; shack. The contents are used for reversing the dictionary if an n field is not present (or is present but empty). Also used as a national language definition in a formatted dictionary if there is no dn field (or it is present but empty).
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3711 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


gloss (regional)

gloss (regional); admitted name
gloss (regional); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
gr; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3712

Identifier: gloss_regional   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics, Translation

Definition: Intended for interlinear morpheme-level glossing. Join multi-word glosses with (_), e.g. wild_boar; use (space semicolon space) for multiple glosses, e.g. hut ; house ; shack. Since MDF does not create a reversed index for the regional language, this field is not used for this. But the contents of this field are used as a regional language definition in a formatted dictionary if there is no dr field (or it is present but empty).
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3712 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


grammar

grammar; preferred name
G; admitted name
grammar; Source: ATA Framework; data element name
G; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3582

Identifier: grammar   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework for Error Marking   Profile: Translation

Definition: An error that occurs when a sentence in the translation violates the grammatical rules of the target language.
Source: ATA Framework

Example: Grammar errors include lack of agreement between subject and verb, incorrect verb tenses or verb forms, and incorrect declension of nouns, pronouns, or adjectives.
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3582 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, German

Data type: string


illegibility

illegibility; preferred name
ILL; admitted name
illegibility; Source: ATA/FEM; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3598

Identifier: illegibility   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework (ATA FEM)   Profile: Translation

Definition: Error that occurs in handwritten text when readers cannot decipher the translator's handwriting.
Source: ATA/FEM

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3598 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


indecision

indecision; preferred name
IND; admitted name
indecision; Source: ATA Framework; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3599

Identifier: indecision   Type: complex/open   Origin: ATA Framework   Profile: Translation

Definition: An error that occurs when a translator gives more than one option for a given translation unit.
Source: ATA Framework

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3599 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


language service / product

language service / product; preferred name
language service / product; Source: ASTM F43; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3984

Identifier: languageServiceProductType   Type: complex/closed   Origin: ASTM F43   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation, Language Resource Ontology, Lexicography, Terminology, Lexical Resources, Sign Language

Definition: An act or a variety of work performed using linguistic resources or the products of such work.
Source: SEW; lame draft

Example: technical writing, translation, language training, language or translation assessment
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3984 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


controlled language

controlled language; preferred name
controlled language; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.6; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3991

Identifier: controlledLanguage   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.6   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Definition: A ubset of a language with restricted grammar, domain-specific vocabulary, and constrained style designed to allow domain specialists to formulate unambiguous texts pertaining to their subject field.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.6

Example: Caterpillar Technical Englisih, AECMA Simplified English
Source:

Explanation: Controlled language facilitates clear, concise, technical communication by for instance, adhering to a one term-one meaning principle. It can be accurately and efficiently analyzed by a computer, but is expressive enough to allow natural usage. Advantages can include consistency in style and reading level, reduced training times, increased readability for non-native speakers, as well as improved machine translation effectiveness and translatability for human translators.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.6

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3991 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


example-based machine translation

example-based machine translation; preferred name
EBMT; admitted name
example-based machine translation; Source: MT; data element name
EBMT; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4005

Identifier: example-basedMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A data-driven mode of machine translation that implements a case-based reasoning approach of machine learning at run-time to translate sub-sentential elements by analogy with previously translated segments drawn from a bilingual corpus of parallel texts.
Source: Based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Example-based_machine_translation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4005 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


fully automatic high quality translation

fully automatic high quality translation; preferred name
FAHQT; admitted name
fully automatic high quality machine translation; admitted name
FAHQMT; admitted name
fully automatic high quality translation; Source: MT; data element name
FAHQT; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4011

Identifier: fullyAutomaticHighQualityTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A completely automatic high quality translation of a foreign text into the target language without human pre- or post-editing.
Source: Based on http://www.cknow.com/cms/ckinfo/fahqt---fully-automatic-high-quality-translation.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4011 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


glossary

glossary; preferred name
glossary; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.12; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-104

Identifier: glossary   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.12   Profiles: Terminology, undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: special language

Definition: A terminological list of designations from a subject field, frequently with equivalents in one or more languages.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.12

Definition: A terminological dictionary which contains a list of designations from a subject field, together with equivalents in one or more languages
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.7.3

Definition: A terminological list or short dictionary containing the terminology of a specific subject field or of related fields.
Source: ISO 12620:1999, B.21

Explanation: In English common language usage, glossary can refer to a unilingual list of designations (3.4.1) and definitions (3.3.1) in a particular subject field (3.1.2).
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.7.3

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-104 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


hybrid machine translation

hybrid machine translation; preferred name
HMT; admitted name
hybrid machine translation; Source: MT; data element name
HMT; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4006

Identifier: hybridMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A mode of machine traslation that leverages the strengths of statistical and rule-based translation methodologies.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_translation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4006 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


interlingua

interlingua; preferred name
interlingua; Source: ISO 24613-2008, 3.22; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4079

Identifier: interlingua   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 24613-2008, 3.22   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: An abstract intermediary language used in the machine translation of human language.
Source: ISO 24613-2008, 3.22

Explanation: See /interlingual machine translation/.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4079 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


interlingual machine translation

interlingual machine translation; preferred name
interlingual machine translation; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4003

Identifier: interlingualMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A mode of machine translation that (at least theoretically) initially transforms the source text the into an interlingua, i.e., an abstract language-independent representation, and then generates the target language text from the interlingua. Discussion: The main disadvantage of this strategy is the difficulty of creating an adequate interlingua. It should be both abstract and independent of the source and target languages. The more languages added to the translation system, and the more different they are, the more potent the interlingua must be to express all possible translation directions. Another problem is that it is difficult to extract meaning from texts in the original languages to create the intermediate representation. Many translation and even MT experts are highly sceptical of the possibility of applying the interlinagual approach. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlingual_machine_translation
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlingual_machine_translation

Explanation: The main disadvantage of this strategy is the difficulty of creating an adequate interlingua. It should be both abstract and independent of the source and target languages. The more languages added to the translation system, and the more different they are, the more potent the interlingua must be to express all possible translation directions. Another problem is that it is difficult to extract meaning from texts in the original languages to create the intermediate representation. Many translation and even MT experts are highly skeptical of the possibility of applying the interlingual approach.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interlingual_machine_translation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4003 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


language mediation

language mediation; preferred name
language mediation; Source: Wils; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4031

Identifier: languageMediation   Type: simple   Origin: T9n   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Definition: The communication of meaning from one language to another by either written (translation) or oral (interpreting) means.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4031 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


audio transcription

audio transcription; preferred name
tape transcription; admitted name
audio transcription; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name
tape transcription; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4064

Identifier: audioTranscription   Type: simple   Origin: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The conversion of the spoken word to a text format in the same language.
Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4064 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


dubbing

dubbing; preferred name
dubbing; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubbing_(filmmaking); data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4075

Identifier: dubbing   Type: simple   Origin: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubbing_(filmmaking)   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The post-production process of recording and replacing voices on a motion picture or television soundtrack subsequent to the original shooting, most commonly involving the substitution of the voices of the actors shown on the screen by those of different performers, who may be speaking a different language.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dubbing_(filmmaking)

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4075 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


interpreting

interpreting; preferred name
interpretation; admitted name
interpretation; Source: ASTM F 2089-01, 3.1; data element name
interpreting; Source: NAJIT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4032

Identifier: interpreting   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2089-01, 3.1   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The process of understanding and analyzing a spoken or signed message and re-expressing that message faithfully, accurately and objectively in another language, taking the cultural and social context into account.
Source: ASTM F 2089-01, 3.1
Note: Although ASTM F 2089-01 implied a preference for "interpretation," current consensus trends toward "interpreting" as the less ambiguous term. The product of the interpreting process is, however, interpretation. See http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4052.

Explanation: There are several different branches of interpretation: (1) legal, (2) conference, (3) medical/mental health, (4) escort, (5) seminar, and (6) business. Legal interpretation is divided into two main categories, judicial (commonly known as court interpreting) and quasi-judicial (interpreting that takes place in other legal settings). Judiciary interpreters work in courtrooms and in out-of-court settings, in any matter related to law or a legal case.
Source: NAJIT: http://www.najit.org/certification/faq.php#judiciary

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4032 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


business interpreting

business interpreting; preferred name
business interpreting; Source: SEW, based in part on http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4059

Identifier: businessInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: SEW, based in part on http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Type of interpreting designed to facillitiate relationships between suppliers, customers, trade partners and competitors.
Source: SEW, based in part on http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach

Explanation: Business interpreters often perform escort, liaison, and seminar interpreting, and frequently use either consecutive or whisper techniques, with the goal of providing clear, professional, and effective bilingual business communication.
Source: SEW, based in part on http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4059 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


community interpreting

community interpreting; preferred name
public sector interpreting; admitted name
community interpreting; Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.10; data element name
public sector interpreting; Source: Wikipedia; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4035

Identifier: communityInterpreting    Type: simple   Origin: ISO WD 13611, 3.10   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: The delivery of social services, or of interpreting performed in a community situation for societal purposes.
Source: ISO WD 13611
Note: Again, the name is subject to debate. Americans tend not to like "community interpreting" and tend to deprecate the term.

Explanation: Community situations include: health care (including mental health), legal, education, social services, public agencies and institutions, business and industry government agencies, prisons, schools and community centers, prisons, and the military. Societal purposes means facilitating access to services to linguistically diverse clients who do not speak the language of service providers.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.10

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4035 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


conference interpreting

conference interpreting; preferred name
conference interpreting; Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.15; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4049

Identifier: conferenceInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: ISO WD 13611, 3.15   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: A tType of interpreting generally done in simultaneous mode with the use of equipment.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.15

Explanation: Conference interpreting can also be performed using chuchotage (whisper interpreting) or in consecutive mode in organizations such as the United Nations, the European Parliament, or at business meetings.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.15

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4049 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


consecutive interpreting

consecutive interpreting; preferred name
consecutive interpretation; admitted name
consecutive interpreting; Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.16; data element name
consecutive interpretation; Source: Based on ASTM F 2089-01, 3.3; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4034

Identifier: consecutiveInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: A mode of interpretation that requires the interpreter to listen, analyze, comprehend, convert, edit, and reproduce the original message after the speaker or signer pauses, in a specific social context.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2089-01, 3.3

Explanation: Consecutive interpretation is likely to take longer than simultaneous, because the interpreter does not interpret while the speaker or signer is speaking or signing.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2089-01, 3.3

Explanation: The intervals can be arranged beforehand between speakers and interpreter, and consecutive interpreting generally requires ability in note-taking.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.16

Note: Alternate definition: A mode of interpreting involving the rendering of speech into another language done at different intervals, while the speaker pauses during the interpreted rendition. ISO WD 13611, 3.16 The definitions should be compared and an appropriate definition chosen. There can only be one definition in an entry.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4034 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


education interpreting

education interpreting; preferred name
education interprerting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4054

Identifier: educationInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Type of interpreting in which the interprete performs a variety of different tasks in an education setting, for instance, tin a classroom in which the interpreter may need to interpret the teacher's lecture for a student, or vice-versa.
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach

Explanation: Often education interpreting is found between a school's faculty and staff and the parents of the students. This can occur during parent/teacher conferences, or on a larger scale at a school assembly. While many foreign-born students who came with their parents to America have learned English, the parents of these students have often received no training in the English language, and therefore require interpreters to be present whenever there is interaction between the parents and the faculty and staff.
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/education.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4054 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


escort interpreting

escort interpreting; preferred name
guide interpreting; admitted name
liaison interpreting; admitted name
escort interpreting; Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm; data element name
guide interpreting; Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm; data element name
liaison interpreting; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation#Escort; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4053

Identifier: escortInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: USGov   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Type of interpreting that requires that the interpreter(s) accompany foreign visitors to a country to ensure that they are able to communicate during their stay.
Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm

Explanation: Specialists interpret on a variety of subjects, both on an informal basis and on a professional level, usually working in consecutive mode.
Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4053 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


interpretation

interpretation; preferred name
interpretation; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4052

Identifier: interpretation   Type: simple   Origin: SEW   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: The product of the interpreting process.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4052 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


legal interpreting

legal interpreting; preferred name
legal interpretation; admitted name
legal interpreting; Source: SEW; implied NAJIT; data element name
legal interpretation; Source: SEW; implied NAJIT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4051

Identifier: legalInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: SEW; implied NAJIT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Interpreting that is focused either on interpreting in courtroom settings (judicial or judiciary interpreting) or quasi-judicial interpreting (interpreting that takes place in other legal settings).
Source: SEW; implied NAJIT
Note: The term is used, but NAJIT prefers "judiciary interpreting" in court settings.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4051 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


legal translation

legal translation; preferred name
legal translation; Source: General; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4060

Identifier: legalTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: General   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: The preparation of written translations of documents related to criminal and/or civil matters, such as medical or psychological evaluations; forensic reports (drug analyses, DNA reports or medical reports); divorce decrees; foreign judgments; extradition documents; statutes and contracts, or other relevant documents.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4060 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


medical interpreting

medical interpreting; preferred name
medical interpreting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/medical.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4056

Identifier: medicalInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/medical.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Type of community interpreting that facilitates communication between people speaking different languages in health care settings (patient to doctor, doctor to doctor, etc).
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/medical.htm, © 2004 Olgierda Furmanek, Heidi Achenbach

Explanation: Medical interpreters subscribe to the obligation to maintain benificence for patients, fidelity in interpretation within the cultural context, transcultural understanding and respect, as well as ethical standards, impartiality, and if need be, patient advocacy.
Source: http://www.healthcareinterpretercertification.org/certification/standards.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4056 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


note taking

note taking; preferred name
note taking; Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.20 [modified]; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4050

Identifier: noteTaking   Type: simple   Origin: ISO WD 13611, 3.20 [modified]   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: A way of conceptualizing and summarizing information on paper to support interpretation into another language.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.20 [modified]

Explanation: Notetaking for interpretation usually involves using symbols, arrows, and sometimes words to aid the interpreter’s memory and attention by noting important concepts, links and data such as dates and figures. It is neither short-hand, nor regular writing. Although learners can be trained to use conventionalized note-taking solutions, actual practice is highly individualized and in most cases unintelligible to another interpreter.
Source: ISO WD 13611, 3.20 [modified]

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4050 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


on-site interpreting

on-site interpreting; preferred name
in-person interpreting; admitted name
on-site interpreting; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name
in-person interpreting; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4069

Identifier: onSiteInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Interpreting delivery method that requires the interpreter to be physically present in order for the interpretation to take place. In on-site interpreting settings, all of the parties who wish to speak to one another are usually located in the same place.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation

Explanation: This is by far the more common interpreting method and has only arisen as a separate concept as a contrast to /remote interpreting/ or /phone interpreting/.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4069 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


remote interpreting

remote interpreting; preferred name
over-the-phone interpreting; admitted name
phone interpreting; admitted name
telephonic interpreting; admitted name
remote interpreting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name
over-the-phone interpreting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name
phone interpreting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name
telephonic interpreting; Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4070

Identifier: remoteInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Interpreting strategy that enables the interpreter to deliver interpretation via telephone by being added to a conference call.
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_interpretation

Explanation: Telephone interpreting may be used in place of on-site interpreting in some cases, especially when no on-site interpreter is readily available at the location where services are needed. However, telephone interpreting is more commonly used for situations in which all parties who wish to communicate are already speaking to one another via telephone (e.g. applications for insurance or credit cards that are taken over the phone, inquiries from consumers to businesses that take place via telephone, etc.)
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone

Explanation: Remote interpreting (telephone/video interpreting) requires many of the same skills as other forms of interpreting, but it occurs without the interpersonal face-to-face interaction. The main difficulty lies in the fact that, like the simultaneous interpreter, the remote interpreter must be able to relay all messages solely through verbal means. Remote interpreting, usually used in medical settings, is found less in community interpreting settings than in the business world, yet still may be used for some community interactions. Many companies that provide linguistic services such as interpreting and translation also provide remote interpreting services.
Source: http://lrc.wfu.edu/community_interpreting/pages/telephone.htm

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4070 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


seminar interpreting

seminar interpreting; preferred name
meeting interpreting; admitted name
seminar interpreting; Source: http://www.andiamo.co.uk/interpretingservices/meetingorseminarinterpreting.aspx; data element name
meeting interpreting; Source: http://www.andiamo.co.uk/interpretingservices/meetingorseminarinterpreting.aspx; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4058

Identifier: seminarInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: http://www.andiamo.co.uk/interpretingservices/meetingorseminarinterpreting.aspx   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Type of business interpreting, usually in consecutive mode, involving small meetings between two or a few more individuals for less formal meetings.
Source: http://www.andiamo.co.uk/interpretingservices/meetingorseminarinterpreting.aspx

Explanation: Seminar interpreting may coincide escort or liaison interpreting, educational interpreting, public sector interpreting, for instance, and other less demanding circumstances where full conference interpreting with equipment in simultaneous mode is not necessarily appropriate.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4058 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


simultaneous interpreting

simultaneous interpreting; preferred name
simultaneous interpretation; admitted name
simultaneous interpretation; Source: Based on ASTM F 2089-01, 3.2; data element name
simultaneous interpreting; Source: ISO WD 13611 3.22; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4033

Identifier: simultaneousInterpretation   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: A mode of interpretation that requires the interpreter to listen, analyze, comprehend, convert, edit, and reproduce in real time a speaker or signer’s message while the speaker or signer continues to speak or sign, in a specific social context
Source: Based on ASTM F 2089-01, 3.2
Note: As noted under interpretation/interpreting, consensus needs to be clearly reached on the preferred name.

Definition: The rendering of speech into another spoken or signed language done at the same time as the speaker is delivering the speech.
Source: ISO WD 13611 3.22

Explanation: NOTE: For spoken languages it is carried out with the use of special equipment and booths.
Source: ISO WD 13611 3.22

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4033 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


whisper interpreting

whisper interpreting; preferred name
chucotage; admitted name
whisper interpreting; Source: ISO WD 13611 3.14; data element name
chucotage; Source: ISO WD 13611 3.14; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4036

Identifier: whisperInterpreting   Type: simple   Origin: ISO WD 13611 3.14   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: interpreting

Definition: Mode of simultaneous interpreting done in the form of whispering.
Source: ISO WD 13611 3.14

Explanation: Whisper interpreting is used in circumstances when technical equipment is not available or the audience is too small to justify using equipment.
Source: ISO WD 13611 3.14

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4036 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


pocket translator

pocket translator; preferred name
electronic talking translator; admitted name
portable speech-to-speech electronic translator ;; admitted name
pocket translator; Source: SEW based on http://aramedia.com/itravl.htm; data element name
electronic talking translator; Source: SEW based on http://aramedia.com/itravl.htm; data element name
portable speech-to-speech translator; Source: SEW based on http://aramedia.com/itravl.htm; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4088

Identifier: pocketTranslator   Type: simple   Origin: SEW based on http://aramedia.com/itravl.htm   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: Hand held device featuring speech recognition, electronic dictionary support, recorded real human voice output, and TTS voice synthesis designed to produce in-the-field interpretations for tourists as well as for emergency or military personnel operating without the benefit of human interpreters.
Source: SEW based on http://aramedia.com/itravl.htm

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4088 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


subtitling

subtitling; preferred name
captioning; admitted name
subtitling; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitle_(captioning); data element name
captioning; Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitle_(captioning); data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4076

Identifier: subtitling   Type: simple   Origin: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitle_(captioning)   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation, Sign Language

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The addition of textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs, usually displayed at the bottom of the screen.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitle_(captioning)

Explanation: Subtitles can either be a form of written translation of a dialog in a foreign language, or a written rendering of the dialog in the same language, with or without added information to help viewers who are deaf and hard-of-hearing to follow the dialog, or people who cannot understand the spoken dialogue or who have accent recognition problems. Captioning is also used in for TV news and similar presentations on large TV screens mounted in public places (airports and the like) where it is difficult if not impossible to hear spoken sound.
Source: Based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subtitle_(captioning)

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4076 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


text transcription

text transcription; preferred name
text transcription; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4065

Identifier: textTranscription   Type: simple   Origin: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The conversion of a text document such as a passport or handwritten letter to a different text format such as Microsoft Word (in the same language).
Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4065 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


transcription/translation

transcription/translation; preferred name
TT; admitted name
transliction; admitted name
transcription/translation; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name
TT; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name
translication; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4067

Identifier: transcriptionTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The process of first transcribing speech in language “A” to text in language “A,” and then translating the transcript to text in language “B.”
Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4067 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translation

translation; preferred name
text translation; admitted name
translation; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.41; data element name
text translation; Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3983

Identifier: translation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.41   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: language mediation

Definition: The process comprising the creation of a written target text based on a source text in such a way that the content and in many cases, the form, of the two texts, can be considered to be equivalent.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.41

Definition: In the context of localization,the linguistic adaptation of materials, which can range from “simple” translation through to “transcreation”—the creation of functionally equivalent, but linguistically non-equivalent texts.
Source: LISA

Definition: The process of translating text in one language to its equivalent written word in a different language.
Source: http://www.forensic-audio.net/spanish-transcription-vs-audio-translation.php

Explanation: As opposed to interpreting, which involves the mediation of oral or gestural expression, translation involves written documents
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.41

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3983 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


adaptation

adaptation; preferred name
adaptation; Source: ASTM 2575-06; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3985

Identifier: adaptation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM 2575-06   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: A localization procedure through which the translator replaces a culture-specific aspect of a product, service, or document, such as a software utility, color, icon, or other cultural artifact from the source culture with an equivalent appropriate to the target culture to accommodate the expectations of the target audience.
Source: ASTM 2575-06

Explanation: In some cases, the translator may have to create or supply an equivalent when the source text refers to something that does not apply to the target culture, for example, replacing a graphic image of a Caucasian using a product with an image of an Asian using the product or replacing an English thesaurus with a French thesaurus. Note that the term adaptation is sometimes used to refer to the adaptation of a translation to fit a particular medium when the original cannot be changed or recreated to accommodate a complete and faithful translation (for example, adapting the translation of a video script to suit a video originally shot in another language). Also, the term adaptation is sometimes used in the sense of internationalization in which a source text is adapted to facilitate translation.
Source: ASTM 2575-06

Explanation: Adaptation is often a question of degree, from minor cultur-specific changes to extended rewriting or redesign of the source text or layout, in which case there is a trend to speak of "transcreation."
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3985 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


aligned text

aligned text; preferred name
bitext; admitted name
aligned text; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.2; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3988

Identifier: alignedText   Type: simple   Origin: T9n/L10n   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Source text that has been segmented and for which the segments have been paired with their individual translations.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.2

Note: The synonym is bitext when only two languages are involved, not parallel text or comparable text.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3988 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


back translation

back translation; preferred name
round-trip translation; admitted name
back translation; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.3; data element name
round-trip translation; Source: Wikipedia, ref. to Machine Translation; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3990

Identifier: backTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.3   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The retranslation of a translated text back into its source language.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.3

Explanation: A back translation will not result in a text that is identical to the source text, and furthermore, a back translation is not necessarily a good indicator of the quality of the translation.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.3

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3990 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


computer assisted translation

computer assisted translation; preferred name
CAT; admitted name
computer assisted translation; Source: T9n/L10n industry; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3987

Identifier: computerAssistedTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.4   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Translation in which a variety of computer programs (tools) are used to support the task of human translation.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.4

Example: CAT tools include terminology extraction and management, text alignment, translation memory, term lookup showing context of use, indexing and frequency counts, and various specialized editing tools designed to protect code and facilitate translation of resource text.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.4

Note: "Computer assisted translation" is also used to refer to the process whereby such a translation is produced.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3987 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


edited translation

edited translation; preferred name
edited translation; Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3993

Identifier: editedTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Product of the translation editing process.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3993 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


globalization

globalization; preferred name
G11n; admitted name
globalization; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.11; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3995

Identifier: globalization   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The business processes and allocation of resources necessary for taking a product to various markets around the globe.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.11

Definition: The process of making all the necessary technical, financial, managerial, personnel, marketing, and other enterprise decisions necessary to facilitate international business.
Source: LISA

Explanation: Globalization includes making decisions regarding internationalization, localization, sales processes, and so forth. The abbreviation consists of the first and last letters of the term, with the number 11 inserted between them, signifying the eleven letters between the G and the N
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.11

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3995 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


internationalization

internationalization; preferred name
I18n; admitted name
internationalization; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.13; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3996

Identifier: internationalization   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.13   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The process of generalizing a product so that it can handle multiple languages and cultural conventions (such as non-Roman scripts, varying date/time/currency formats, and so forth) without the need for substantial modification.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.13

Definition: The process of ensuring at a technical/design level that a product can be easily localized.
Source: LISA

Explanation: Internationalization facilitates localization by building in flexibility. Internationalization can also be performed on a document, as opposed to a product, to facilitate translation. The abbreviation consists of the first and last letters of the term, with the number 18 inserted between them, signifying the 18 letters between the I and the N.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.13

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3996 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


literary translation

literary translation; preferred name
literary translation; Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4073

Identifier: literaryTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Type of translation where written literature is rendered from one language into another.
Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm

Explanation: Literary translation covers a number of sub-genres, including journal articles, books, poetry, and short stories. Literary translation is related to creative writing; literary translators must create a new text in the target language that reproduces the content and style of the original. Whenever possible, literary translators work closely with authors to best capture their intended meanings and literary characteristics.
Source: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos175.htm

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4073 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


localization

localization; preferred name
L10n; admitted name
localization; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.18; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3997

Identifier: localization   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.18   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The cross-cultural communication process of preparing locale-specific versions of a product or service, consisting of translation of textual material into the language and textual conventions of the target locale, and adaptation of nontextual materials as well as input, output, and delivery mechanisms to meet the cultural, technical, and regulatory requirements of that locale.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.18

Definition: The process of modifying products or services to account for differences in distinct markets.
Source: LISA

Explanation: Localization encompasses not only the translation and adaptation of computer software, but also the preparation of many types of products and services for particular locales. The abbreviation consists of the first and last letters of the term, with the number 10 inserted between them, signifying the ten letters between the L and N.ß
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.18

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3997 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


medical translation

medical translation; preferred name
medical translation; Source: Wright, Oxford 2011; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4063

Identifier: medicalTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: Wright, Oxford 2011   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Translation of texts for the medical subject field.
Source: Wright, Oxford 2011

Example: Medical translation can range from scientific articles dealing with topics in the medical field, to test reports, product inserts, and a wide range of other sub-text types and genres.
Source: Wright, Oxford 2011

Explanation: Medical translation is often associated erroneously with scientific and technical translation. Rather than being a third "type" on a par with these two modes, medical translation is a subject field classification that encompasses both.
Source: Wright, Oxford 2011

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4063 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


pivot language translation

pivot language translation; preferred name
bridge language translation; admitted name
pivot language translation; Source: MT, Localization; data element name
bridge language translation; Source: MT, Localization; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4007

Identifier: pivotLanguageTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: Translation   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Human or machine translation strategy where a natural, resp. artificial language is used as an intermediary language for translation between many different languages – to translate between any pair of languages A and B, one translates A to the pivot language P, then from P to B.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pivot_language

Explanation: Using a pivot language avoids the combinatorial explosion of having translators across every combination of the supported languages, as the number of combinations of language is linear (n − 1), rather than quadratic () – one need only know the language A and the pivot language P (and someone else the language B and the pivot P), rather than needing a different translator for every possible combination of A and B.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pivot_language

Explanation: In localization environments, it is common to use English as a pivot language (language B) because more translators know English as a second language and more parallel text corpora match to English texts, thus making it easier both to find human translators and to develop parallel corpora to support statistical machine translation.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4007 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


post-project review

post-project review; preferred name
postmortem; admitted name
post-project review; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.24; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4016

Identifier: postProjectReview   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.24   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The review and performance evaluation procedure conducted at the end of a project to determine how well the project conformed to original specifications.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.24
Note: Postmortem is widely used in an ironic way, but post-project review is more likely to be used in formal documentation.

Explanation: Post-project review analysis is also designed to facilitate orderly project closeout. It can involve debriefing of project participants and integrating project resources (for example, terminology and translation memory data) into central data repositories so that they can be leveraged for later projects. This can help increase efficiency and ensure continuous improvement.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.24

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4016 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


pre-translation

pre-translation; preferred name
pre-translation; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4014

Identifier: pre-translation   Type: simple   Origin: TM environments   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Analysis-level phase of translation management using CAT tools, whereby previously translated translation segments found in the translation memory are automatically inserted into the draft translation, and, in some cases, candidate translations are provided by an integrated MT system.
Source: SEW

Explanation: Pre-translated text often includes fuzzy matching, so it is not necessarily more accurate that raw machine translation and requires careful editing by a human translator to ensure accuracy. Nevertheless, well-populated pre-translations based on high-quality TM greatly reduce translation time and increase consistency.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4014 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


project management

project management; preferred name
project management; Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.25 project manager; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4017

Identifier: projectManagement   Type: simple   Origin: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.25 project manager   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The coordination of the various aspects of a project in order to ensure their proper and timely execution.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.25 project manager

Explanation: The project manager can be either external or internal, depending on whether the translation service provider is an external vendor or an internal department within the requesting organization. There are cases in which there is a project manager on the requester side and one on the translation services provider (vendor) side. In some cases, the project manager and the translator are the same person. The responsibilities of the project manager are to ensure that all the specifications are clearly defined, assign terminology research as needed, and coordinate the members of the translation team, such as the translator, editor, and the desktop publishing specialist. Coordination also includes assuring that the project is completed on time, on budget, and in compliance with the agreed-upon specifications.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.25 project manager

Explanation: A distinction can be made between translation project management and localization project management because they may entail different phases and requirements.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4017 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


scientific translation

scientific translation; preferred name
scientific translation; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4061

Identifier: scientificTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: SEW   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Translation of texts based on human inquiry and the observation of the natural world, involving a rational effort to discover regularities that can be codified into laws of nature.
Source: Based on Shermer 2008: 38

Explanation: The scientific method implies an empirical and often experimental approach to this act of observation and the postulation of rules. Scientific, technical and medical translation are sometimes lumped together, particularly as a title for academic courses, but it is important to sort out the differences between these areas.
Source: SEW

Note: Shermer, Michael. (2008). ‘Sacred Science: Can Emergence Break the Spell of Reductionism and Put Spirituality Back into Nature?’ Scientific American 299, 1: 38.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4061 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


sight translation

sight translation; preferred name
sight interpreting; admitted name
sight translation; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.30; data element name
sight interprering; Source: ISO WD 13611 3.21; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4019

Identifier: sightTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.30   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Oral translation, often impromptu, of a written text from one language to another in the presence of the end user with little or no prior examination on the part of the translator.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.30

Definition: The rendering of text written in one language into a spoken or signed form of another language.
Source: ISO WD 13611 3.21

Explanation: Interpreters are more likely to be asked to perform sight translation on the fly during interpreting assignments, such as court depositions or in meetings, although translators are sometimes also required to perform the service.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4019 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


source text

source text; preferred name
ST; admitted name
source text; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.32; data element name
ST; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.32; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4021

Identifier: sourceText   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.32   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The text to be translated.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.32

Explanation: The source text is not a translation product, but rather the raw material that contributes to the translation process. It is included here because this DC may well be used in the translation environment.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4021 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


target text

target text; preferred name
TT; admitted name
target text; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35; data element name
TT; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4020

Identifier: targetText   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: A text produced as the result of the translation process.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.35

Explanation: A target text is based on the translation of a source text, which is not strictly speaking a "translation product," but the data category "source text" may be needed in a translation or localization environment in order to identify resources used in the translation process.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4020 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


technical translation

technical translation; preferred name
technical translation; Source: Wright, Oxford 2011; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4062

Identifier: technicalTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: Wright, Oxford 2011   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Type of translation involving the mediation of observed knowledge to manipulate the environment for the improvement of the human condition.
Source: Wright, Oxford 2011

Explanation: Applied science and engineering facilitate the transitional phase whereby scientific knowledge and processes are exploited for technological ends.
Source: Wright, Oxford 2011

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4062 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


transcreation

transcreation; preferred name
transcreation; Source: L10n industry; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3986

Identifier: transcreation   Type: simple   Origin: Misc. Localization Industry   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The creation of functionally equivalent, but linguistically non-equivalent texts.
Source: LISA

Definition: A form of translation, closer to copywriting, resulting in a text linguistically and culturally adapted for its intended audience designed to have the same impact on the target audience as the original source text.
Source: http://transcreationblog.net/2010/02/11/transcreation-now-youre-talking-my-language/

Example: In an English translation of a German text describing term formation, the deletion of irrelevant sections and the additions of new ones reflecting specifically English rules and usage constitutes transcreation because the translator must write some material "from scratch."
Source: SEW

Explanation: Transcreation is a form of adaptation, mainly used in drama contexts, is defined as “ the ‘freest’ form of translation” and one where “… the SL [source language] culture [is] converted to the TL [target language] culture and the text rewritten” (p. 46).The idea of rewriting a text to adapt it to the norms of the target culture, to the point that little trace is left of its source, seems to be at the root of transcreation, too. Nowadays often used in advertising and the media, transcreation is a portmanteau word made by combining together translation and creation, in order to emphasise the considerable amount of creativity required in the process.
Source: ttp://www.airy-eel.blogspot.com

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3986 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translation editing

translation editing; preferred name
translation editing; Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3992

Identifier: translationEditing   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: The process whereby a bilingual member of the translation team compares a completed translation to the source text for the purpose of validating the accuracy of the final target text, and gives detailed feedback.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7

Explanation: In many cases, the editor can also be asked to make changes when necessary to improve the naturalness of the language or accommodate the specified register of the translated text. The editing function is sometimes confused with proofreading, which is essentially a monolingual activity. Furthermore, there are several terms other than editor (for example, reviser, reviewer, and so forth) used to designate persons who perform various aspects of the editing activity.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.7

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3992 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translation memory

translation memory; preferred name
TM; admitted name
translation memory; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.44; data element name
TM; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.44; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4028

Identifier: translationMemory   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.44   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: A text-based resource consisting of aligned text segments (translation units) stored by a translation memory tool.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.44

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4028 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translation memory tool

translation memory tool; preferred name
translation memory tool; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.45; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4029

Identifier: translationMemoryTool   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.45   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: A computer program that facilitates comparison of new source text segments to previously translated source text in order to link them to existing translations.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.45

Explanation: Translation memory tools align and store translated source texts paired with their respective target texts in machine-readable form for use in later translation projects.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.45

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4029 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


translation quality assessment

translation quality assessment; preferred name
translation quality assessment; Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.46 translation quality; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4030

Identifier: translationQualityAssessment   Type: simple   Origin: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.46 translation quality   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: translation

Definition: Evaluation of the degree to which the characteristics of a translation fulfill the requirements of the agreed-upon specifications.
Source: Based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.46 translation quality

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4030 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


machine translation lexicon

machine translation lexicon; preferred name
machine translation lexicon; Source: ISO 24613-2008, 3.30; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4081

Identifier: machineTranslationLexicon   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 24613-2008, 3.30   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: An electronic lexical resource in which the individual lexical entries contain equivalents in two or more languages together with morphological, syntactic and/or semantic information to facilitate automatic or semi-automatic processing of lexemes during machine translation.
Source: ISO 24613-2008, 3.30

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4081 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


pre-editing

pre-editing; preferred name
pre-editing machine translation; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4008

Identifier: pre-editingMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: Rewriting a source text by simplifying syntax and/or standardizing terminology in order to increase the quality of machine translation output.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4008 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


rule-based machine translation

rule-based machine translation; preferred name
RBMT; admitted name
rule-based machine translation; Source: SEW; data element name
RBMT; Source: SEW; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4001

Identifier: rule-basedMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A mode of machine translation based on linguistic information about source and target languages basically retrieved from (bilingual) dictionaries and grammars covering the main semantic, morphological, and syntactic regularities of each language respectively.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule-based_machine_translation

Explanation: Having input sentences (in some source language), an RBMT system generates them to output sentences (in some target language) on the basis of morphological, syntactic, and semantic analysis of both the source and the target languages involved in a concrete translation task.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule-based_machine_translation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4001 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


statistical machine translation

statistical machine translation; preferred name
SMT; admitted name
statistical machine translation; Source: MT; data element name
SMT; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4004

Identifier: statisticalMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A data-driven mode of machine translation where translations are generated on the basis of statistical models whose parameters are derived from the analysis of bilingual text corpora.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistical_machine_translation

Example: Examples: SDL Language Weaver, Google Translate
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4004 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


term extraction

term extraction; preferred name
term mining; admitted name
term extraction; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.36; data element name
term mining; Source: SEW; data element name
term excerption; Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.7; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4022

Identifier: termExtraction   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.36   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Terminology, Translation

Definition: The identification and compilation of translation-relevant single or multiword terms from monolingual or aligned bilingual texts. ISO 1087-1, 3.6.7 term excerption part of terminology work (3.6.1) which involves extracting terminological data (3.8.1) by searching through a corpus (3.6.9) NOTE Term excerption involves identifying concepts (3.2.1) and their designations (3.4.1) and noting any relevant information about a concept such as definitions (3.3.1), contexts (3.6.10) and usage labels.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.36

Definition: The part of terminology work which involves extracting terminological data by searching through a text or a corpus.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.7

Explanation: Term extraction utilities are CAT tools designed to leverage terminological data as opposed to general language words found in new source texts or existing translations or parallel texts. Term extraction can also be performed manually.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.36

Explanation: Term excerption involves identifying concepts and their designations and noting any relevant information about a concept such as definitions, contexts and usage labels.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.7

Note: The term "term excerption" is virtually never used in industry or in standard terminology management practice. "Term mining" is a term taken from "data mining." Tools designed to support this process are commonly referred to as "term extraction" tools.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4022 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


term identification

term identification; preferred name
term identification; Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.8; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4023

Identifier: termIdentification   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.8   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Terminology, Translation

Definition: The part of term excerption involving recognition and selection of designations.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.6.8
Note: See term extraction.

Explanation: Term identification can be conducted manually by a human reading texts or it can involve one step in an automated term extraction process.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4023 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


termbase

termbase; preferred name
terminology database; admitted name
terminological database; admitted name
termbase; Source: ASTM 2575-06, 3.1.38; data element name
terminology database; Source: ASTM 2575-06, 3.1.38; data element name
terminological database; Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.7.5; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4025

Identifier: termbase   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM 2575-06, 3.1.38   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Terminology, Translation

Is a: special language

Definition: A database containing data related to concepts or their designations or both.
Source: ASTM 2575-06

Definition: A database containing terminological data.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.7.5

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4025 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


terminological data collection

terminological data collection; preferred name
terminological data collection; Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.21; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4047

Identifier: terminologicalDataCollection   Type: simple   Origin:    Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation, Terminology

Is a: special language

Definition: Collection of data containing information on concepts of specific subject fields.
Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.21

Explanation: ISO 1087-2 is not absolutely clear what if any difference exists between this and a termbase per se. Conceivably, one could argue that a TBX file comprises a collection, but is not in truth a termbase as long as it is not installed in a working application.
Source: SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4047 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


terminology

terminology; preferred name
terminology; Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.37; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4024

Identifier: terminlogy   Type: simple   Origin: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.37   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Terminology, Translation

Is a: special language

Definition: The set of designations belonging to the language of a given subject field.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.37

Definition: The set of designations belonging to one special language.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.5.1

Explanation: Designations can include single-word terms, multiword terms, phrases, collocations, or even formulae.
Source: ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.37

Explanation: "Terminology" is a polysemic term and can also be defined as the "science studying the structure, formation, development, usage and management of terminologies in various subject fields." Terminology in this sense, however, is neither a service or product in the sense of ASTM F43.
Source: ISO 1087-1, 3.5.1; SEW

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4024 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


terminology management

terminology management; preferred name
terminlogy management; Source: Wright-Budin; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4027

Identifier: terminologyManagement   Type: simple   Origin: Wright-Budin   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Terminology, Translation

Is a: terminology

Definition: Any deliberate manipulation of terminological information.
Source: Wright-Budin, p. 2

Explanation: Terminology management can be categorized as systematic, i.e., viewing the terminology of a whole subject field and its conceptual relationships, or ad hoc, i.e., documenting individual terms and concepts as needed. Ad hoc terminology management can also be text-oriented, treating the terms and concepts used in a given text or text corpus. Terminology management can be descriptive or prescriptive, depending on the purpose for which it is performed.
Source: Based on Wright-Budin

Note: Complete citation: Wright, S.E. & Budin, Gerhard. (1997). The Handbook of Terminology Management, p. 2. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4027 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


text alignment

text alignment; preferred name
text alignment; Source: based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.2; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3989

Identifier: textAlignment   Type: simple   Origin: T9n/L10n industry   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Definition: The process of creating aligned text.
Source: based on ASTM F 2575-06, 3.1.2

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3989 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


text corpus

text corpus; preferred name
corpus; admitted name
text corpus; Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.7; data element name
corpus; Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.7; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4046

Identifier: textCorpus   Type: simple   Origin: ISO 1087-2, 2.7   Profiles: Metadata, Terminology, Morphosyntax, Semantic Content Representation, Syntax, Lexical Semantics, Dialogue Acts, Translation

Definition: A systematic collection of machine-readable texts or parts of text prepared, coded and stored according to predefined rules.
Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.7

Explanation: A text corpus may be limited according to aspects of subject fields, size or time, e.g. mathematical texts, certain periodicals from 1986 onwards. It is used as source material for further linguistic analysis or terminology work.
Source: ISO 1087-2, 2.7

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4046 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


transfer-based machine translation

transfer-based machine translation; preferred name
TBMT; admitted name
transfer-based machine translation; Source: MT; data element name
TBMT; Source: MT; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4002

Identifier: transfer-basedMachineTranslation   Type: simple   Origin: MT   Profiles: undecided, Metadata, Translation

Is a: machine translation

Definition: A mode of machine translation that applies sets of linguistic rules which are defined as correspondences between the structure of the source language and that of the target language.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer-based_machine_translation

Explanation: The first stage involves analysing the input text for morphology and syntax (and sometimes semantics) to create an internal representation. The translation is generated from this representation using both bilingual dictionaries and grammatical rules.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer-based_machine_translation

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-4002 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


lexical function gloss (English)

lexical function gloss (English); admitted name
lexical function gloss (English); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
le; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3717

Identifier: lexical_function_gloss_English   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Semantics, Translation

Definition: This is for giving the English gloss of the vernacular lexeme referenced by the lexical function.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3717 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


lexical function gloss (national)

lexical function gloss (national); admitted name
lexical functon gloss (national); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
ln; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3719

Identifier: lexical_function_gloss_national   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Lexical Semantics, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Definition: This is for giving the national language gloss of the vernacular lexeme referenced by the lexical function.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3719 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


lexical function gloss (regional)

lexical function gloss (regional); admitted name
lexical function gloss (regional); Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
lr; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3720

Identifier: lexical_function_gloss_regional   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Lexical Semantics, Semantic Content Representation, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Example: This is for giving the regional language gloss of the vernacular lexeme referenced by the lexical function.
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3720 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


literally

literally; admitted name
literally; Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html; data element name
lt; Source: MDF; data element name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3721

Identifier: literally   Type: complex/open   Origin: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html   Profiles: undecided, Lexicography, Language Codes, Multilingual Information Management, Translation

Definition: Used to elucidate the distinct meanings of the parts of an idiom or complex phrase in a lexical entry (lx) or subentry (se).
Source: Coward, David F. & Grimes, Charles E. (2000). Making Dictionaries: A guide to lexicography and the Multi-Dictionary Formatter. Waxhaw, North Carolina: SIL International (1st ed. 1995). URL: http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_2000.pdf http://www.sil.org/computing/shoebox/MDF_Updates.html

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-3721 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Data type: string


value

value; standardized name

PID: http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1978

Identifier: value   Type: complex/open   Origin:    Profiles: Morphosyntax, Metadata, Semantic Content Representation, Syntax, Language Resource Ontology, Lexicography, Language Codes, Terminology, Multilingual Information Management, Lexical Resources, Lexical Semantics, Translation, Sign Language

Definition: Generic name for a value.
Source:

License: This work by http://www.datcatinfo.net/datcat/DC-1978 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Language sections: English, French

Data type: string


Nametype
1adaptationsimple
2additioncomplex/open
3aligned textsimple
4ambiguitycomplex/open
5audio transcriptionsimple
6back translationsimple
7business interpretingsimple
8capitalizationcomplex/open
9cohesioncomplex/open
10community interpretingsimple
11computer assisted translationsimple
12conference interpretingsimple
13consecutive interpretingsimple
14controlled languagesimple
15cross-reference gloss (English)complex/open
16cross-reference gloss (national)complex/open
17cross-reference gloss (regional)complex/open
18diacritical markcomplex/open
19dubbingsimple
20edited translationsimple
21education interpretingsimple
22escort interpretingsimple
23etymology gloss (English)complex/open
24example free translation (English)complex/open
25example free translation (national)complex/open
26example free translation (regional)complex/open
27example-based machine translationsimple
28faux amicomplex/open
29fully automatic high quality translationsimple
30globalizationsimple
31gloss (English)complex/open
32gloss (national)complex/open
33gloss (regional)complex/open
34glossarysimple
35grammarcomplex/open
36hybrid machine translationsimple
37illegibilitycomplex/open
38indecisioncomplex/open
39interlinguasimple
40interlingual machine translationsimple
41internationalizationsimple
42interpretationsimple
43interpretingsimple
44language mediationsimple
45language service / productcomplex/closed
46legal interpretingsimple
47legal translationsimple
48lexical function gloss (English)complex/open
49lexical function gloss (national)complex/open
50lexical function gloss (regional)complex/open
51literallycomplex/open
52literary translationsimple
53localizationsimple
54machine translation lexiconsimple
55medical interpretingsimple
56medical translationsimple
57note takingsimple
58on-site interpretingsimple
59pivot language translationsimple
60pocket translatorsimple
61post-project reviewsimple
62pre-editingsimple
63pre-translationsimple
64project managementsimple
65remote interpretingsimple
66rule-based machine translationsimple
67scientific translationsimple
68seminar interpretingsimple
69sight translationsimple
70simultaneous interpretingsimple
71source textsimple
72statistical machine translationsimple
73subtitlingsimple
74target textsimple
75technical translationsimple
76term extractionsimple
77term identificationsimple
78termbasesimple
79terminological data collectionsimple
80terminologysimple
81terminology managementsimple
82text alignmentsimple
83text corpussimple
84text transcriptionsimple
85transcreationsimple
86transcription/translationsimple
87transfer-based machine translationsimple
88translationsimple
89translation editingsimple
90translation memorysimple
91translation memory toolsimple
92translation quality assessmentsimple
93valuecomplex/open
94whisper interpretingsimple